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Table 4 Adjusted (Multivariate) analysis of background variables and socio-cultural variables associated with timely and delayed treatment *

From: Socio-cultural determinants of timely and delayed treatment of Buruli ulcer: implications for disease control

Treatment status Timely treatment N = 178 P-values
OR (95% CI)
Education   
Primary Ref  
Secondary and above 0.5 (0.16, 1.62) 0.254
No education 0.4 (0.09, 1.58) 0.180
Patterns of distress   
Problems with mobility and use of affected limbs 0.8 (0.29, 2.50) 0.762
Disrupted education 0.4 (0.12, 1.63) 0.220
Loss of income 0.5 (0.13, 1.75) 0.267
Anxiety 0.6 (0.25, 1.57) 0.316
Embarrassed about condition 0.6 (0.22, 1.41) 0.216
Recurring infection 3.5 (0.71, 17.63) 0.125
Perceived causes   
Drinking unclean water 3.8 (1.34, 10.63) 0.011
Prone to illness 0.2 (0.05, 1.09) 0.064
Weakness of blood 0.6 (0.24, 1.79) 0.406
Outside-help   
Herbalist 0.2 (0.08, 0.56) 0.002
Fetish/spiritualist 0.2 (0.05, 1.09) 0.064
Prayer camp 0.4 (0.13, 1.32) 0.136
Municipal health facilities 1.2 (0.31, 4.68) 0.792
Government hospital outside the district 0.3 (0.05, 1.56) 0.150
Nothing 0.4 (0.04, 2.96) 0.343
Reasons for medical treatment   
Easy access to health centre 8.5 (1.61, 44.47) 0.012
Self-referral 2.3 (0.74, 6.98) 0.151
Referral by family and friends 1.6 (0.57, 4.43) 0.374
Get well quickly 1.5 (0.30, 7.32) 0.620
Effectiveness of antibiotic treatment 2.8 (0.55, 14.51) 0.215
  1. * Odds ratios, confidence intervals and p-values for all variables included in the adjusted model are shown in the table. Values in bold indicate statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05). The fitness of the model was assessed with the p-value (p < 0.001). OR = odds ratios, CI = confidence intervals. Timely treatment is defined as seeking treatment < 3 months from first awareness of symptoms to appropriate help-seeking.