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Table 3 Levels of selected immunological indicators in HIV-negative individuals, stratified by parasitic infection status

From: HIV and intestinal parasite co-infections among a Chinese population: an immunological profile

  Without parasite infection Only helminth infections Only B. hominis infection Only Cryptosporidium spp. infection Both helminth and protozoan infections P-Value**
  (n = 210) x ¯ ± s (n = 11) x ¯ ± s (n = 56) x ¯ ± s (n = 9) x ¯ ± s (n = 5) x ¯ ± s  
CD4+ 842.2 ± 270.5 802.5 ± 219.8 794.6 ± 249.6 739.8 ± 175.9 937.6 ± 251.9 0.4796
IL-2 56.4 ± 41.4 69.8 ± 49.0 55.6 ± 40.3 64.2 ± 45.2 58.9 ± 46.7 0.8432
IL-4 14.8 ± 9.0 15.5 ± 6.3 14.3 ± 6.6 15.1 ± 12.0 13.0 ± 6.6 0.9801
IL-10 25.4 ± 51.0 22.1 ± 25.1 28.5 ± 43.0 27.6 ± 38.6 8.3 ± 5.3 0.9212
IFN-γ 12.3 ± 7.2 13.8 ± 12.5 12.0 ± 7.0 11.2 ± 5.5 10.1 ± 2.9 0.8762
T* 0.5 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.3 0.5 ± 0.2 0.9135
  1. * T = IFN-γ/(IFN-γ + IL-4).
  2. **Dunnett t test was applied in paired comparison among groups and group 1 was the control group; P > 0.05.