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Table 4 Relative risk of malaria parasitaemia in relation to malaria prevention methods adopted by pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Lagos, Nigeria

From: Factors associated with risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

Preventive methods Proportion with malaria Risk ratio (95% C.I.) P
a) Insecticide spray    
  Yes 51/885 (5.8%) 0.36 (0.24–0.54) <0.001
  No 32/199 (16.1%)   
b) Chemoprophylaxis    
  Yes 21/243 (8.6%) 1.17 (0.73–1.88) 0.297
  No 62/841 (7.4%)   
c) Bed net use    
  i) Any net    
   Yes 9/161 (5.6%) 0.70 (0.36–1.36) 0.183
   No 74/923 (8.0%)   
  ii) Insecticide treated net (ITN)    
   Yes 9/125 (7.2%) 0.93 (0.48–1.82) 0.506
   No 74/959 (7.7%)   
d) Insecticide sprays + ITN    
  Yes 1/80 (1.3%) 0.15 (0.02–1.09) 0.011
  No 82/1004 (8.6)   
e) Chemoprophylaxis + ITN    
  Yes 1/22 (4.5%) 0.59 (0.09–4.04 0.488
  No 82/1062 (7.7%)   
f) Insecticide sprays + chemoprophylaxis    
  Yes 14/190 (7.4%) 0.95 (0.55–1.66) 0.505
  No 69/894 (7.7%)   
g) Insecticide sprays + Chemoprophylaxis + ITN    
  Yes 0/11 (0%) - -
  No 83/1073 (7.7%)