Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 6 Relationship between patients’ characteristics, average household direct costs, and rate of catastrophic payments for TB, Nigeria, 2011

From: Household catastrophic payments for tuberculosis care in Nigeria: incidence, determinants, and policy implications for universal health coverage

Variable Direct costs (US$) T-test P Rate of catastrophic payment n (%) X2 P
Age (years)   6.01 <0.001   0.024 0.9
≤ 40 144    150 (43.6)   
> 40 197    48 (44.4)   
Gender   4.2 <0.001   26.1 <0.001
Male 171    138 (54.3)   
Female 138    60 (30.3)   
Residence   3.1 0.002   69 <0.0
Urban 180    78 (81.3)   
Rural 150    120 (33.7)   
Education   0.88 0.4   40.3 <0.001
No formal education 153    42 (24.7)   
Formal education 159    156 (55.3)   
Primary income earner 4.1 <0.001   56.3 <0.001
Yes 174    126 (63.6)   
No 143    72 (28.3)   
Household income level   2.6 0.01   72.8 <0.001
Poor 144    120 (69)   
Less-poor 165    78 (28.1)   
Category of facility   0.7 0.47   37.6 <0.001
Public 161    24 (20)   
Private 155    174 (52.4)   
Smear status   0.02 0.98   0.66 0.42
Smear positive 157    162 (44.8)   
Smear negative 157    36 (40)   
HIV status   4.4 <0.001   1.3 0.25
Positive 168    66 (45)   
Negative 131    132 (42)   
  1. HIV = human immunodeficiency virus.