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Table 3 Limitations and desired product profiles of drugs for leishmania, Human African Trypanosomiasis, and Chagas disease

From: Control of malaria and other vector-borne protozoan diseases in the tropics: enduring challenges despite considerable progress and achievements

Drugs Limitations Desired profiles of new products
Leishmaniasis
Antimonials (1950) Safety, poor compliance, resistance Active against resistant strains; oral drug or safe injectable; cure in less than 28 days; pediatric formulation; potential combination with other agents; use in pregnancy; stable under tropical conditions; affordable
Pentamidine (Lomidine) (1939) Safety, poor compliance, resistance
Amphotericin B (Fungizone) (1959) Safety, poor compliance, resistance
Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) (1990) Safety, poor compliance, resistance
Miltefosine (2002) Safety, poor compliance, resistance
Sodium Stibogluconate/paromomycin (SSG&PM) (2010) Contra-indicated in pregnancy
Human African Trypanosomiasis
Suramin (1920) Efficacy, injectable Use against early and late stage disease; active against both major species; parenteral with option for oral use; cure in less than 14 days; pediatric formulation; potential combination with other agents; use in pregnancy; stable under tropical conditions; affordable
Melarsoprol (1949) Safety, injectable
Pentamidine (1939) Resistance, compliance, injectable
Eflornithine (1991) Cost, injectable, efficacy
NECT (Nifurtimox/eflornithine) (2009) Cost, injectable, compliance
Chagas disease
Benznidazole (1970) Activity limited to acute stage of disease, some safety issues Active against blood and tissue forms of parasite; active in prevention of chronic stage of the disease; pediatric formulation; potential combination with other agents; use in pregnancy; stable under tropical conditions; affordable
Nifurtimox (1974) Activity limited to acute stage of disease, some safety issues  
  1. Adapted from Adapted from Nwaka and Ridley [75], Nwaka and Hudson [78] and DNDi [79].