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Table 1 Geographical and spatiotemporal epidemiology of Ebola virus disease outbreaks across Africa from 1976 to 2014

From: Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries

Countries Species/year Total cases Total deaths Diagnosis Existing interventions Challenges and prospects
South Sudan Sudan ebolavirus, 1976 284 151   – Balancing infusion of fluids/electrolytes – Early stage diagnosis
Sudan ebolavirus, 1979 34 22 – Syndromic or retrospective assessment – Maintaining oxygen status and blood pressure – Effective mass screening tools
Sudan ebolavirus, 2004 17 7
   – Novel drugs in management
Congo Zaire ebolavirus, 2001–02 59 44
Zaire ebolavirus, 2003 178 157   – Management of complicated cases – Primary prevention measures such as education, capacity building, training and advocacy
Zaire ebolavirus, 2005 12 10
Gabon Zaire ebolavirus, 1994 52 31
–Antibodies ELISA IgM and IgG assay – Community mobilisation, participation and health education  
Zaire ebolavirus, 1996 91 61
Zaire ebolavirus, 2001–02 65 53    – Human-animal migration
Ivory Coast Taï Forest ebolavirus, 1994 1 0
DRC Zaire ebolavirus, 1976 318 280
Zaire ebolavirus, 1977 1 1   – Routine cleaning and disinfection of host farms – Resettlements and wars
Zaire ebolavirus, 1995 315 250
Zaire ebolavirus, 2005 32 15
– Immunological testing   
Zaire ebolavirus, 2007 264 187    – Poaching
      – Close supervision of burial or incineration of carcasses – Deforestation and forest degradation
Serum neutralisation test   – Climate change and global warming
  – Personal protective measures – Infrastructure factors
– Molecular assays such as qPCR – Electron microscopy   – Animal-environmental factors
Zaire ebolavirus, 2008 32 14    – Trans-trading, mining and urbanisation
Zaire ebolavirus, 2012 36 13
South Africa Zaire ebolavirus, 1996 1 1    – Poverty cycle
Uganda Zaire ebolavirus, 2000 425 224    – Health education
B. ebolavirus, 2007 149 37 – Virus isolation and susceptibility testing   – Community participation and empowerment and bioinformatics
Zaire ebolavirus, 2011 1 1    
Sudan ebolavirus, 2012 31 21
Guinea Zaire ebolavirus, 2014 495 363
Sierra Leone Zaire ebolavirus, 2014 691 281
Liberia Zaire ebolavirus, 2014 516 286
Nigeria Zaire ebolavirus, 2014 9 1    
  1. DRC: Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo: Republic of Congo, ICT: Information and Communication Technology.