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Table 1 Available therapeutic agents that target the different steps of the EBOV life cycle as shown in the diagram

From: Human Ebola virus infection in West Africa: a review of available therapeutic agents that target different steps of the life cycle of Ebola virus

Medication Mechanism of action
Convalescent blood serum Contain neutralizing antibodies to provide passive immunity.
Na+/K+ exchanger Inhibit virus uptake by macropinocytosis.
- Amiloride
Chloroquine1 Leads to alkalinization of endosomes and prevent the acid pH-dependent cleavage of Ebola virus GP1,2 by endosomal proteases cathepsin B and L.
Cationic amphiphiles Induce a Niemann-Pick C-like phenotype and block the entry of EBOV through late endosomes.
Amiodarone1
Dronedarone1
Verapamil2
Clomiphene
Toremifene1
Interferon- beta (IFN-β) Induce interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMP) production to restrict entry of EBOV.
Favipiravir Suppress viral RNA polymerase.
Na+/K+/ATPase pump inhibitors Inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase that are important in the budding and egress of encapsulated EBOV.
Ouabain
Digoxin
Digitoxin
Anti-oxidants Suppress ROS-dependent NFκB activation and cytokine dysregulation induced by GP1,2-induced ER-overload.
High dose N-acetylcysteine infusion
  1. 1Chloroquine, Amiodarone, Dronedarone and Toremifene administration is associated with an increased risk of QT prolongation and Torsades de pointes. 2Verapamil should be avoided in patient with hypotension.