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Table 2 Pig-associated zoonoses suspected to be endemic in Southeast Asia that can cause acute jaundice and/or liver impairment

From: Cultural drivers and health-seeking behaviours that impact on the transmission of pig-associated zoonoses in Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Disease Aetiological agent Transmission route Host animals in SE Asia Estimated DALYs lost per year Risk factors
Hepatitis E Viral (hepatitis E virus) Direct contact with urine, blood and other secretions from infected animals; environmental contamination Varies by region – rodents, cattle, pigs, dogs 3, 715 000 DALYs (between 1,552,000 and 7,470,000) Outdoor recreation; swine contact in high risk occupations; poor hygiene and sanitation; flooding (wet season)
Leptospirosis Bacterial (Leptospira spp.) Direct contact with urine, blood and other secretions of infected animals; consumption of raw/undercooked pork products; environmental contamination (rivers and streams) Mainly pigs; also deer, horse, cattle, sheep, goats, cats, dogs, rodents and macaques Unknown Swine contact in high risk occupations; food preparation and consumption practices; flooding (wet season); single water source; poor hygiene and sanitation; use of pig manure as fertiliser for vegetable gardens