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Table 3 Pig-associated zoonoses suspected to be endemic in Southeast Asia that can cause epilepsy and other neurological conditions

From: Cultural drivers and health-seeking behaviours that impact on the transmission of pig-associated zoonoses in Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Disease Aetiological agent Transmission route Host animals in SE Asia Estimated DALYs lost per year Risk factors
Japanese encephalitis (JE) Viral (JE virus) Vector borne: Culex tritaeniorhynchus Waterfowl (ducks, herons, egrets), pigs, horses 709,000 for JE; 7, 141 000 (6,148,000–8,274,000) for encephalitis Vector population and wet season; rice agriculture production and its proximity of the household; pig husbandry systems
Taenia solium taeniasis-cysticercosis Parasitic (T. solium) Consumption of raw/undercooked pork or vegetable products; ingestion of viable cysts from infected pork, faecal-oral route (taenia eggs) Pigs 503,000 (379,000–663,000) Food preparation and consumption practices; poor hygiene and sanitation; pig husbandry systems; use of human faeces as fertiliser for vegetable gardens; poor meat inspection
Streptococcus suis Bacterial (S. suis) Consumption of raw/undercooked pork products; direct contact with carrier or infected pigs/pig products Pigs mainly; also wild boars, horses, dogs, cats Unknown for S. Suis; 9, 563 000 (8,108,000–10,858,000) for meningitisi Food preparation and consumption practices; swine contact in high risk occupations; slaughter practices
  1. iMeningitis other than pneumococcal meningitis, H. influenzae type B meningitis and meningococcal infection.