The study area in Nedumkayam Reserve Forest in Nilambur Taluk of Malappuram district, Kerala state, India. The study area is in Malappuram, Kerala, South India (larger panel) in India (small panel as inset). The new focus area shares borders with Karnataka in the North and Tamil Nadu in the East. The highlighted area is part of the Nedumkayam Reserve Forest in Malappuram. It forms part of the new focus along with other adjoining areas that have reported recent KFD activity as indicated in the larger panel.