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Table 1 Summary of malaria control programmes using IRS in Zimbabwe between 1945 and 2004

From: Insecticide resistance in malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in Zimbabwe: a review

Author Year Milestones in insecticide use in Zimbabwe
Mabaso et al., [47] 1945 IRS introduced
  1949 Programme launched
  1957–62 DDT and BHC used
  1972–73 BHC (equally effective as DDT but cheaper)
  1974–87 DDT (due to resistance to BHC)
  1988–2000 Deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin (policy change)
UNEP, [50] 2004 DDT was reintroduced to complement pyrethroids
Unpublished sources/reports 1949–1960 BHC used for the countrywide malaria control programme, while dieldrin was used in sugar estates
  1960 DDT was used to complement BHC on a small scale
  1974–1976 DDT became a principal insecticide for malaria control
  1976–80 No insecticide used as spraying activities were disrupted by war of liberation
  1980–1987 Extensive use of DDT resumed
  1987–1991 DDT used, interchangeable with deltamethrin
  1991 DDT abandoned (decision to abandon was motivated by need to protect tobacco export)
  1991–2003 Only pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and alpha-cypermethrin) were used
UNEP, [50] 2004 DDT was reintroduced to complement pyrethroids