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Table 2 Summary of studies that assessed insecticide resistance in malarial mosquitoes between 1972 and 2014 in Zimbabwe

From: Insecticide resistance in malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in Zimbabwe: a review

Author [reference] Objectives Mosquito species studied Study area Method Outcome
Knox et al. [52] To introduce and demonstrate the usefulness of the online mapping tool IR Mapper An. gambiae African region (results presented are for Zimbabwe) Systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature An. gambiae and An. funestus were resistant to organophosphates and pyrethroids.
An. funestus
Lukwa et al. [56] To conduct a nation-wide assessment of insecticide susceptibility in wild populations of An. gambiae s.l. An. gambiae s.l Thirteen (13) sentinel sites covering all malaria-endemic regions in Zimbabwe All sites were sampled for resistance in malarial mosquitoes between 2011 and 2012. No evidence of phenotypic resistance to any of the four insecticide classes in An. gambiae s.l. collected across different eco-epidemiology areas in Zimbabwe.
PMI Africa IRS. [5] To determine insecticide susceptibility for malarial mosquito species from sentinel sites throughout Zimbabwe An. gambiae s.l Nine (9) sentinel sites in various provinces in Zimbabwe WHO susceptibility tests were done using impregnated papers and test kits on wild caught An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes. An. funestus mosquitoes were resistant to pyrethroids (lambda-cyhalothrin and etofenprox).
An. funestus
Choi et al. [55] To investigate the biological attributes of insecticide resistance and parasite infection rates that both impact on malaria vector control activities An. funestus Honde Valley WHO susceptibility tests were done using impregnated papers and test kits on mosquitoes were collected between February and March 2014. An. funestus populations were resistant to pyrethroids and carbamates.
Munhenga et al. [37] To determine insecticide susceptibility of An. arabiensis using the WHO insecticide susceptibility method. An. arabiensis Gokwe WHO susceptibility tests were done using impregnated papers and test kits on wild caught An. arabiensis and F1 progeny of the same mosquitoes. Study confirmed the presence of permethrin and DDT resistance in An. gambiae mosquitoes in the Gwave area of Gokwe.
Masendu et al. [54] To determine the distribution of malaria vectors in Zimbabwe together with the extent of insecticide resistance in different assemblages An. gambiae Giles s.s, An. arabiensis Patton, An. merus Dönitz and An. quadrinnulatus Theobald (species A). Zimbabwe National anopheline mosquito survey conducted between 1992 and 2002 at sites broadly categorised based on land use, patterns and location. DDT resistance was detected in An. arabiensis collected from market gardens in Gokwe.
Manokore et al. [49] To determine insecticide susceptibility of field caught An. arabiensis and F1 progeny reared from these field-caught females An. arabiensis Patton mosquitoes to WHO recommended insecticides An. arabiensis Patton Gokwe district in the Midlands province Wild caught An. arabiensis mosquitoes were tested for insecticide sensitivity using the WHO susceptibility test method. F1 progeny of field-caught females that were identified as An. arabiensis Patton were completely susceptible to deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT.
Green, [48] Unknown Unknown Chiredzi district Unknown mosquitoes were tested against BHC Insecticide resistance to BHC reported in Chiredzi