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Table 1 The physicochemical parameter(s) of water samples in selected SEA countries

From: Presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in water samples from Southeast Asia: towards an integrated water detection system

Country Type of water Average, SD, and CI (95%) values Water quality parameters (physicochemical)
Physical Chemical
Turbidity TDS Salinity DO Chlorine Nitrate Nitrite Ammonia
(NTU) (mg/L) (ppt) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/L)
Malaysia Treated Average 3.04 65.90 0.05 3.01 0.18 0.14 0.08 2.07
SD 5.05 88.65 0.05 3.30 0.35 0.19 0.15 5.63
CI (95%) 3.50 61.43 0.03 2.28 0.24 0.13 0.11 3.90
Untreated Average 17.79 58.78 0.05 2.56 0.15 0.32 0.20 0.37
SD 23.34 66.48 0.04 2.15 0.16 0.41 0.38 0.51
CI (95%) 7.96 22.68 0.01 0.73 0.05 0.14 0.13 0.17
Thailand Treated Average 1.34 416.53 0.30 5.24 0.24 2.31 0.03 0.69
SD 1.98 1170.86 0.92 6.18 0.76 8.03 0.04 2.90
CI (95%) 0.85 500.77 0.39 2.64 0.32 3.43 0.02 1.24
Untreated Average 62.51 131.30 1.39 3.00 0.24 0.29 0.23 0.17
SD 149.91 198.24 4.98 1.88 0.30 0.39 1.41 0.23
CI (95%) 29.53 39.05 0.98 0.37 0.06 0.08 0.28 0.05
Philippines Treated Average 1.04 306.13 0.23 0.84 0.58 0.10 0.01 0.12
SD 1.08 254.15 0.19 0.93 0.74 0.20 0.01 0.17
CI (95%) 0.75 176.11 0.13 0.65 0.52 0.14 0.00 0.11
Untreated Average 8.84 530.39 0.54 0.64 0.28 0.18 0.20 0.43
SD 6.38 902.59 1.00 2.28 0.50 0.25 0.32 0.32
CI (95%) 2.61 368.87 0.41 0.93 0.20 0.10 0.13 0.13
Vietnam Treated Average 0.31 224.92 0.06 4.82 0.04 0.09 0.01 0.10
SD 0.38 376.10 0.06 0.98 0.06 0.05 0.01 0.01
CI (95%) 0.37 368.58 0.06 0.96 0.06 0.05 0.01 0.01
Untreated Average 23.60 3630.54 2.77 3.83 0.21 0.56 0.58 0.34
SD 21.86 3546.22 3.19 2.28 0.17 0.42 0.39 0.29
CI (95%) 13.55 2197.93 1.98 1.41 0.11 0.26 0.24 0.18
  1. Treated water includes drinking water, water dispenser, mineral water, tap water and swimming pools
  2. Untreated water includes rain water, springs, wells, recreational lake, rivers, waterfalls, canals/channels and effluent water