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Table 1 The 10 principles of landscape epidemiology proposed by Lambin and colleagues

From: The landscape epidemiology of echinococcoses

Principle Description
1 Landscape attributes may influence the level of transmission of an infection
2 Spatial variations in disease risk depend not only on the presence and area of critical habitats but also on their spatial configuration
3 Disease risk depends on the connectivity of habitats for vectors and hosts
4 The landscape is a proxy for specific associations of reservoir hosts and vectors linked with the emergence of multi-host disease
5 To understand ecological factors influencing spatial variations of disease risk, one needs to take into account the pathways of pathogen transmission between vectors, hosts, and the physical environment
6 The emergence and distribution of infection through time and space is controlled by different factors acting at multiple scales
7 Landscape and meteorological factors control not just the emergence but also the spatial concentration and spatial diffusion of infection risk
8 Spatial variation in disease risk depends not only on land cover but also on land use, via the probability of contact between, on one hand, human hosts and, on the other hand, infectious vectors, animal hosts or their infected habitats
9 The relationship between land use and the probability of contact between vectors and animal hosts and human hosts is influenced by land ownership
10 Human behaviour is a crucial controlling factor of vector-human contacts, and of infection.