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Table 1 Key characteristics of parasitic diseases of poverty in China

From: Major parasitic diseases of poverty in mainland China: perspectives for better control

Disease Parasite Definitive host Intermediate host Factors relating to infectiona Clinical manifestations DALYsb (thousands)
Vector-borne diseases  
Malaria [1013] Plasmodium spp. Humans and other animals Mosquito Children, pregnant women, humble house, lack of bed nets, immigrants from epidemic regions, occupation dependent exposure to mosquitoes Fever, headache, shock, jaundice, abnormal bleeding, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly 82 685
Leishmaniasis [2628] Leishmania spp. Humans and other mammals Sandfly Children, the older, males, dog ownership, herdsman, humble house, sleeping outside, occupation dependent exposure to sandfly CL: Skin papules, plaque, ulcer and nodular prurigo
ML: Edema and erythema on nose, nasal stuffiness or bleeding, mucosal lesions
VL: Fever, weight loss, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly
3 317
Lymphatic filariasis [3133] Wuchereria bancrofti
Brugia malayi
Brugia timori
Humans Mosquito Humble house, lack of bed nets, occupation dependent exposure to mosquitoes Lymphangitis, lymphnoditis,
lymphoedema, elephantedema hydrocele, chyluria
2 775
Snail-borne diseases  
Schistosomiasis [3537] Schistosoma spp. Humans and other mammals Oncomelania hupensis Males, high frequency of water contact, occupation dependent exposure to snails, snails related practices Fever, headache, abdominal pain, hematuria, anemia, bloody stool, hepatosplenomegaly, colonic tumoroid proliferation, ascites, hydronephrosis, dwarfism, megalosplenia 3 309
Clonorchiasis [4244] Clonorchis sinensis Humans and other mammals Water snails, fish and shrimps Males, the older, high frequency of eating of raw or undercooked freshwater fish Inappetence, abdominal pain, gallstone, jaundice, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, pyogenic cholangitis, cholecystitis 275
Paragonimiasis [54] Paragonimus spp. Humans, cats, dogs and other carnivores Water snails and crustaceans Children, high frequency of eating of raw or undercooked freshwater crabs Chronic cough, chest pain, hemoptysis, pleurisy, dyspnea,
abdominal pain, epilepsy
Fascioliasis [5759] Fasciola gigantica
Fasciola hepatica
Humans and other mammals Water snails Children, females, high frequency of eating of raw vegetables or untreated water and contact with ruminants Fever, anemia, hepatic lesions and fibrosis, hepatomegaly, jaundice, cholangitis, cholecystitis 35
Soil-transmitted helminthiasis  
Ascariasis Ascaris lumbricoides Humans - Ascariasis and trichuriasis: school-aged children
Hookworm: the older and farmers
Inappetence, undernutrition, abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, growth and cognitive deficits 1 315
Trichuriasis Trichuris trichiura Humans - 638
Hookworm [6366] Ancylostoma duodenale Necator americanus Humans - 3 231
Enterobiasis [66, 70, 72] Enterobius vermicularis Humans - School-aged children, crowded Inappetence, restlessness, perianal pruritus and discomfort, insomnia, irritability, growth and cognitive deficits -
Zoonotic diseases  
Taeniasis/Cysticercosis [73, 74, 76] Taenia solium
Taenia saginata Taenia asiatica
Humans Humans, pig and cattle Pigs related practices, high frequency of eating of raw pork Headaches, ocular disorders, epilepsy, seizure, neurological symptoms 503
Echinococcosis [7780, 8486] Echinococcus granulosus
Echinococcus multilocularis
Dogs and wild canids Humans and other animals Females, the older, herdsmen slaughter and viscera disposal practices, dog related practices AE: Tumour-like multi-vesicular
CE: Unilocular fluid-filled bladders
Water-borne diseases  
Cryptosporidiosis [8890] Cryptosporidium spp. Humans and other animals - Children, immunocompromised individuals, poor water treatment Diarrhea, growth deficits, malnutrition, weight loss 8 372
Giardiasis [95] Giardia spp. Humans and other animals - Children, poor water treatment Diarrhea, malnutrition, growth deficits, weight loss -
Toxoplasmosis [98101] Toxoplasma gondii Felids Humans and other animals The older, cancer patients,
immunocompromised individuals,
cat related practices
Blindness, mental deficiency, encephalitis, stillbirths, abortion -
Outbreak parasitic diseases      
Angiostrongyliasis [104107] Angiostrongylus cantonensis Rats Snails and slugs High frequency of eating of raw or undercooked snails Eosinophilic meningitis,
headache, somnolence,
ocular angiostrongyliasis
  1. aPoverty, poor sanitation and inadequate hygiene and poor knowledge of, attitudes towards and practice relating to parasites are also the predisposing factors to these diseases. bSource: WHO, Global Burden of Diseases 2010 [42, 130]