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Table 2 Association between agricultural success, land area cultivated and household socioeconomic position in 100 households in Nagongera, Uganda

From: Why is malaria associated with poverty? Findings from a cohort study in rural Uganda

Indicator Land area cultivated (%) Wealth index tertile (%)
<1.6 haa (N = 59) ≥1.6 ha (N = 41) P Poorest (N = 35) Middle (N = 32) Highest (N = 33) P
Land area cultivated
 Land area cultivated (≥1.6 ha vs <1.6 ha)a - - - 28.6 34.4 60.6 0.02
 Land ownership (all owned vs part rented) 35.6 51.2 0.12 45.7 34.4 45.5 0.57
Farm labour
 Hired farm labour 50.9 61.0 0.32 42.9 43.8 78.8 0.004
 Total number of farm workers (≥6 people vs 0–5 people) 25.4 51.2 0.008 17.1 31.3 60.6 0.001
Capitalisation and inputs
 Ox-plough used, past 12 months 33.9 73.2 <0.001 34.3 40.6 75.8 0.001
 Pesticides and herbicides used, past 12 months 69.5 78.1 0.34 65.7 75.0 78.8 0.46
 Access to credit for agriculture 15.3 29.3 0.09 17.1 18.8 27.3 0.55
Productivity     
 TLUb per household member (≥0.05 vs <0.05 TLU per person) 33.9 61.0 0.007 37.1 34.4 63.6 0.03
Market engagement
 Total income from crop sales, past 12 monthsc 27.1 51.2 0.002 20.0 31.3 60.6 0.01
 Total income from crop and livestock sales, past 12 monthsd 18.6 40.0 0.001 11.4 18.8 53.1 0.001
 Proportion of crops sold (≥25 % vs <25 %) 22.0 48.8 0.005 17.1 31.3 51.5 0.01
Non-agricultural income
 Main source of household incomee - - - 11.4 15.6 21.2 0.27
 Remittances received, past 12 months - - - 5.7 12.5 27.3 0.04
  1. aHa = hectare; 1.6 ha = 4 acres
  2. bTropical Livestock Units (TLUs) are a standardised method for quantifying livestock. One TLU corresponds approximately to 250 kg animal weight and total TLUs are calculated by assigning region-specific weights to different livestock types. The following weights were assigned, after Chilonda and Otte: 0.5 per cattle, 0.1 per goat, 0.01 per poultry or rabbit [32]
  3. cTotal income from all crop sales in the past 12 months: ≥US$ 80 versus < US$ 80 (2013 prices)
  4. dTotal income from crop and livestock sales in the past 12 months: ≥US$ 120 versus < US$ 120 (2013 prices)
  5. eMain source of household income: skilled labour versus remittances, agriculture or manual labour