Skip to main content

Table 1 Prevalence and distribution of IPIs among the Temuan and Mah Meri sub-ethnic groups

From: Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism among two indigenous sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia

IPIs Total (n = 186) Temuan (n = 106) Mah Meri (n = 80)
n positive (%) 95 % CI n positive (%) 95 % CI n positive (%) 95 % CI
Overall IPIs 145 (78.0) 71.5–83.3 81 (76.4) 67.5–83.5 64 (80.0) 70.0–87.3
Helminth infections       
Trichuris trichiura 130 (69.9)* 63.0–76.0 68 (64.2) 54.7–72.6 62 (77.5) 67.2–85.3
Ascaris lumbricoides 25 (13.4)* 10.2–23.6 8 (7.5) 3.9–14.2 17 (21.3) 13.7–31.4
 Hookworm 48 (25.8)* 20.1–32.5 36 (34.0) 25.7–43.4 12 (15.0) 8.8–24.4
Protozoan infections       
Giardia sp. 21 (11.3) 7.5–16.6 15 (14.2) 8.8–22.0 6 (7.5) 3.5–15.4
Entamoeba spp. 11 (5.9) 3.3–10.3 8 (7.5) 3.9–14.2 3 (3.8) 1.3–10.5
Types of parasitism       
Monoparasitism       
Trichuris trichiura 62 (33.3) 30.0–40.1 26 (24.5) 17.3–33.5 36 (45.0) 34.6–55.9
Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.5) 0.1–3.0 1 (1.3) 0.2–6.8
 Hookworm 7 (3.8) 1.8–7.6 6 (5.7) 2.6–11.8 1 (1.3) 0.2–6.8
Giardia duodenalis 2 (1.1) 0.3–3.8 2 (1.9) 0.5-6.6
Entamoeba spp. 3 (1.6) 0.6–4.6 3 (2.8) 1.0–8.0
Total single parasitic infections 75 (40.3) 33.5–47.5 37 (34.9) 26.5–44.4 38 (47.5) 36.9–58.3
Polyparasitism       
Two parasites       
T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides 11 (5.9) 3.3–10.3 3 (2.8) 1.0–8.0 8 (10.0) 5.2–18.5
T. trichiura and hookworm 25 (13.4) 9.3–19.1 21 (19.8) 13.3–28.4 4 (5.0) 2.0–12.2
T. trichiura and Entamoeba spp. 5 (2.7) 1.2–6.1 3 (2.8) 1.0–8.0 2 (2.5) 0.7–8.7
T. trichiura and Giardia sp. 8 (4.3) 2.2–8.3 6 (5.7) 2.6–11.8 2 (2.5) 0.7–8.7
A. lumbricoides and Entamoeba spp. 1 (0.5) 0.1–3.0 1 (0.9) 0.2–5.2
 Hookworm and Giardia sp. 1 (0.5) 0.1–3.0 1 (0.9) 0.2–5.2
Total with two parasites 51 (27.4) 21.5–34.2 35 (33.0) 24.8–42.4 16 (20.0) 12.7–30.1
Three parasites       
T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides and hookworm 8 (4.3) 2.2–8.3 3 (2.8) 1.0–8.0 5 (6.3) 2.7–13.8
T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides and Giardia sp. 3 (1.6) 0.6–4.6 3 (3.8) 1.3–10.5
T. trichiura and Entamoeba spp. and Giardia sp. 1 (0.5) 0.1–3.0 1 (0.9) 0.2–5.2
T. trichiura and hookworm and Giardia sp. 5 (2.7) 1.2–6.1 4 (3.8) 1.5–9.3 1 (1.3) 0.2–6.8
T. trichiura and hookworm and Entamoeba spp. 1 (0.5) 0.1–3.0 1 (1.3) 0.2–6.8
Total with three parasites 18 (9.7) 6.2–14.8 8 (7.5) 3.9–14.2 10 (12.5) 6.9–21.5
Four parasites       
T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides and hookworm and Giardia sp. 1 (0.5) 0.1–3.0 1 (0.9) 0.2–5.2
Total with four parasites 1 (0.5) 0.1–3.0 1 (0.9) 0.2–5.2
Overall polyparasitism 70 (37.6) 31.0–44.8 44 (41.5) 32.6–51.0 26 (32.5) 23.2–43.4
  1. *Indicates significant differences in disease proportion (P < 0.05) between the Temuan and Mah Meri sub-ethnic groups