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Table 3 Univariate analysis of factors associated with IPIs among the Temuan and Mah Meri sub-ethnic groups

From: Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism among two indigenous sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia

Risk factors Total (n = 186) Temuan (n = 106) Mah Meri (n = 80)
No. examined Infected, n(%) OR (95 % CI) P-value No. examined Infected, n(%) OR (95 % CI) P-Value No. examined Infected, n(%) OR (95 % CI) P-Value
Demographic factors             
Sub-ethnic group             
 Temuan 106 81 (76.4) 1.24 (0.61–2.51) 0.559 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Mah Meri 80 64 (80.0) 1   N/A N/A N/A   N/A N/A N/A N/A
Age             
  < 15 years 63 52 (82.5) 0.66 (0.30–1.42) 0.281 43 34 (79.1) 0.78 (0.31–1.97) 0.595 20 18 (90.0) 0.37 (0.08–1.77) 0.197
  ≥ 15 years 123 93 (75.6) 1 63 47 (74.6) 1   60 46 (76.7) 1  
Sex             
 Female 107 84 (78.5) 1.08 (0.54–2.17)   63 47 (74.6) 0.78 (0.31–1.97)   44 37 (84.1) 1.76 (0.58–5.32)  
 Male 79 61 (77.2) 1 0.834 43 34 (79.1) 1 0.595 36 27 (75.0) 1 0.312
Family size             
  ≥ 5 members 120 98 (81.7) 1.80 (0.89–3.65)   73 62 (84.9) 4.15 (1.62–10.66)   47 36 (76.6) 0.58 (0.18–1.88)  
  < 5 members 66 47 (71.2) 1 0.100 33 19 (57.6) 1 0.002 33 28 (84.4) 1 0.364
Socio-economic factors             
Education attainment             
 Informal education 34 27 (79.4) 1.11 (0.45–2.77) 0.821 24 18 (75.0) 0.91 (0.31–2.60) 0.853 10 9 (90.0) 2.46 (0.29–20.93) 0.398
 Formal education 152 118 (77.6) 1   82 63 (76.8) 1   70 55 (78.6) 1  
Monthly household income             
  < RM750 132 108 (81.8) 2.07 (1.00–4.27) 0.047 62 50 (80.6) 1.75 (0.71–4.31) 0.223 70 58 (82.9) 3.22 (0.79–13.19) 0.091
  ≥ RM750 54 37 (68.5) 1   44 31 (70.5) 1   10 6 (60.0) 1  
Employment status             
 Unemployed 131 106 (80.9) 1.74 (0.84–3.60) 0.133 76 58 (76.3) 0.98 (0.36–2.66) 0.969 55 48 (87.3) 3.86 (1.24–12.04) 0.016
 Employed 55 39 (70.9) 1   30 23 (76.7) 1   25 16 (64.0) 1  
Presence of toilets             
 No 35 33 (94.3) 5.75 (1.32–25.07) 0.010 21 19 (90.5) 3.52 (0.76–16.33) 0.090 14 14 (100.0) N/A N/A
 Yes 151 112 (74.2) 1   85 62 (72.9) 1   66 50 (75.8)
Water source             
 Untreated water source 47 44 (93.6) 5.52 (1.62–18.83) 0.003 30 27 (90.0) 3.67 (1.01–13.34) 0.038 17 17 (100.0) N/A N/A
 Treated water source 139 101 (72.7) 1   76 54 (71.1) 1   63 47 (74.6)
Presence of domestic animals             
 Yes 113 84 (74.3) 0.57 (0.27–1.21) 0.138 69 49 (71.0) 0.38 (0.13–1.12) 0.074 44 35 (79.5) 0.94 (0.31–2.83) 0.911
 No 73 61 (83.6) 1   37 32 (86.5) 1   36 29 (80.6) 1  
Personal hygiene factors             
Boiling water before drinking             
 No 60 53 (88.3) 2.80 (1.16–6.75) 0.018 33 31 (93.9) 7.13 (1.57–32.37) 0.004 27 22 (81.5) 1.15 (0.36–3.74) 0.813
 Yes 126 92 (73.0) 1   73 50 (68.5) 1   53 42 (79.2) 1  
Eating with bare hands             
 Yes 173 134 (77.5) 0.63 (0.13–2.94) 0.548 98 74 (75.5) 0.44 (0.05–3.76) 0.442 75 60 (80.0) 1.00 (0.10–9.61) 1.000
 No 13 11 (84.6) 1   8 7 (87.5) 1   5 4 (80.0) 1  
Wearing shoes outside             
 No 48 46 (95.8) 9.06 (2.10–39.15) 0.001 26 26 (100.0) N/A N/A 22 20 (90.9) 3.18 (0.66–15.34) 0.133
 Yes 138 99 (71.7) 1   80 55 (68.8) 58 44 (75.9) 1  
Washing hands after contact with soil             
 No 52 47 (90.4) 3.45 (1.27–9.37) 0.011 21 21 (100.0) N/A N/A 31 26 (83.9) 1.51 (0.47–4.85) 0.491
 Yes 134 98 (73.1) 1   85 60 (70.5) 49 38 (77.6) 1  
Washing hands before eating             
 No 49 45 (91.8) 4.16 (1.40–12.38) 0.006 20 20 (100.0) N/A N/A 29 25 (86.2) 1.92 (0.56–6.63) 0.295
 Yes 137 100 (73.0) 1   86 61 (70.9) 51 39 (76.5) 1  
Washing hands before cooking             
 No 34 30 (88.2) 2.41 (0.80–7.30) 0.110 14 14 (100.0) N/A N/A 20 16 (80.0) 1.00 (0.28–3.54) 1.000
 Yes 152 115 (75.7) 1   92 67 (72.8) 60 48 (80.0) 1  
Washing hands after defecation             
 No 60 56 (93.3) 5.82 (1.97–17.21) 0.000 27 27 (100.0) N/A N/A 33 29 (87.9) 2.49 (0.72–8.54) 0.140
 Yes 126 89 (70.6) 1   79 54 (68.4) 47 35 (74.5) 1  
Washing hands after having contact with animals             
 No 37 32 (86.5) 2.04 (0.74–5.62) 0.162 14 13 (92.9) 4.59 (0.57–36.97) 0.120 23 19 (82.6) 1.27 (0.36–4.43) 0.711
 Yes 149 113 (75.8) 1   92 68 (73.9) 1   57 45 (78.9) 1  
Consumption of anthelmintic drugs in the past 12 months             
 No 141 112 (79.4) 1.40 (0.65–3.05) 0.390 69 53 (76.8) 1.07 (0.42–2.72) 0.896 72 59 (81.9) 2.27 (0.58–12.86) 0.192
 Yes 45 33 (73.3) 1   37 28 (75.7) 1   8 5 (62.5) 1