Skip to main content

Table 4 Multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with parasitic infections among indigenous communities

From: Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism among two indigenous sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia

Risk factors Adjusted OR 95 % CI P-value of Full model P-value of Forward selection model
A) Overall     
Demographic factor     
 Family size (≥5 members) 1.55 0.68–3.57 0.300  
Socio-economic factors     
 Monthly household income (<RM750) 1.54 0.66–3.57 0.318  
 Unemployed 1.18 0.50–2.82 0.703  
 Without toilet 3.79 0.67–21.36 0.132  
 Untreated water source 3.66 0.92–14.53 0.066 0.007*
 Presence of domestic animals 0.97 0.38–2.48 0.955  
Personal hygiene factors     
 Not boiling water before consumption 1.60 0.57–4.46 0.372  
 Not wearing shoes outside of home 6.09 1.04–35.71 0.045 0.014*
 Not washing hands after contact with soil 1.89 0.09–38.24 0.678  
 Not washing hands before eating 1.74 0.13–23.69 0.677  
 Not washing hands before cooking 0.13 0.01–2.56 0.179  
 Not washing hands after defecation 9.94 1.03–95.79 0.047 0.009*
 Not washing hands after contact with animals 0.25 0.02–2.58 0.243  
B) Temuan sub-ethnic group     
Demographic factor     
 Family size (≥5 members) 3.44 1.21–9.80 0.021 0.012*
Socio-economic factors     
 Monthly household income (<RM750) 2.02 0.67–6.06 0.211  
 Without toilet 1.63 0.26–10.43 0.604  
 Untreated water source 0.95 0.19–4.86 0.950  
 Presence of domestic animals 0.34 0.09–1.31 0.117  
Personal hygiene factors     
 Not boiling water before consumption 5.96 1.20–29.52 0.029 0.023*
 Not washing hands after contact with animals 3.95 0.42–37.63 0.232  
C) Mah Meri sub-ethnic group     
Demographic factor     
 Age (<15 years old) 0.87 0.13–6.03 0.887  
Socioeconomic factors     
 Unemployed 3.52 0.93–13.26 0.063 0.020*
 Monthly household income (<RM750) 1.31 0.22–7.94 0.769  
Personal hygiene factors     
 Not wearing shoes when outside home 1.59 0.23–10.93 0.635  
 Not washing hands after defecation 2.71 0.69–10.65 0.154  
 Not consuming anthelmintic drugs in the past 12 months 2.23 0.29–16.88 0.439  
  1. *Indicates significant risk factors associated with parasitic infections determined using the forward selection model