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Table 2 Selected vector-borne diseases: characteristics, existing control, prevention tools and challenges

From: Priorities and needs for research on urban interventions targeting vector-borne diseases: rapid review of scoping and systematic reviews

Disease Agent Vector Burden Existing prevention strategies Challenges for VBD control
Malaria Parasite (Plasmodiu, five species) Anopheles (more than 60 species) Transmission in 97 countries. About 3.4 billion people at risk. Outdoor and indoor residual spraying
Bed nets (traditional and long lasting insecticidal nets)
Insecticides, repellents.
Environmental management: Reducing breeding sites by managing water storage, draining water recipients, cleaning backyards, and waste management
Biological control: Introduction of parasites or predators to control de vectors.
Genetic control: Use of Wolbachia
Chemoprophylaxis: Prophylaxis and preventive therapies, mass treatment, vaccines
Lack of expertise in vector control
Limited surveillance
Limited sanitation and limited access to safe drinking water
Resistance to insecticides
Environmental change
Limited research on fidelity of implemented measures
Lack of intersectoral work
Dengue Virus (Flavivirus = Dengue virus, 4 serotypes) Aedes Aegypti (same vector for yellow fever, Chicungunya and Zika virus) More than 100 countries at risk.
2.5 billion people at risk.
Leishmaniasis Cutaneus (CL); Mucocutaneous (MCL) and Visceral (VL). Parasites-Protozoa (Leishmania sp, more than 20 species) Sand flies (Lutzomya) 1.3 million new cases every year.
More than 65 % of CL occurs in six countries. MCL occurs mainly in three countries of the Americas.
American Trypanosomiasis, Chagas Parasite (Trypansosoma cruzi) Triatomine bugs 10 million infected people worldwide.
Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) Parasite (Trypanosoma brucei gambiense) Flies (tsetse fly) Occurs in 36 sub-Saharan Africa countries. Yearly cases are under 20 000 and 65 are estimated to be at risk.
Lyme disease Bacteria (Borrelia) Ticks (Ixodes Ticks) 7.9 cases per 100 000 people in the US. Occurs in Asia, Europe and North America.
  1. Source: World Health Organization. Vector Borne Diseases.