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Table 1 Status of insecticide resistance in phlebotomine sandflies in the Southeast Asia region

From: Insecticide resistance in phlebotomine sandflies in Southeast Asia with emphasis on the Indian subcontinent

Geographical area Sandfly species Insecticide Result Reference
A. Bangladesh P. argentipes DDT Susceptible Choudhury (2000) [41]
B. India
 Muzaffarpur District (Bihar) P. argentipes DDT Susceptible Kaul et al. (1978) [16]
dieldrin
 Muzaffarpur and Samastipur districts (Bihar) P. papatasi DDT Resistant
dieldrin Susceptible (in both districts)
 Muzaffarpur District (Bihar) P. papatasi DDT Resistant Joshi et al. (1979) [3]
 West Bengal P. argentipes DDT Susceptible Sen (1959) [15]
 Muzaffarpur District (Bihar) P. papatasi DDT Resistant Dhanda et al. (1983) [18]
 Samastipur District (Bihar) P. argentipes DDT Tolerant Mukhopadhyay et al. (1990) [4]
 Begusarai and Muzaffarpur districts (Bihar) P. papatasi DDT Resistant in both districts Das et al. (1995) [19]
 Ghaziabad District (Uttar Pradesh) and Midnapur District (West Bengal) P. papatasi DDT Resistant Dhiman and Mittal (2000) [20]
dieldrin Resistant
malathion Resistant
deltamethrin Suceptible (Populations of both districts)
 Panchmahal District (Gujarat) P. papatasi DDT and dieldrin Susceptible Thapar et al. (1993) [21]
 Bikaner District (Rajasthan) P. papatasi DDT, dieldrin and propoxur Resistant Bansal and Singh (1996) [22]
malathion, fenitrothion and permethrin Susceptible
 Pali and Barmer districts (Rajasthan) P. papatasi DDT Resistant Singh and Bansal (1996) [23]
dieldrin, malathion, fenitrothion and propoxur Susceptible
 Vaishali District P. argentipes DDT Resistant (15.4 % mortality) Kaul et al. (1993) [25]
 Patna District (Bihar) P. papatasi   Resistant (2.9 % mortality)
P. argentipes   Susceptible (100 % mortality)
 Varanasi District (Uttar Pradesh) P. argentipes DDT Susceptible Joshi and Rai (1994) [28]
P. papatasi Susceptible
 West Bengal P. argentipes DDT Susceptible Mukhopadhyay et al. (1996) [29]
P. papatasi   Resistant
 Sahibganj District (Bihar) P. argentipes DDT Resistant NMEP (1991) [30]
dieldrin Susceptible
 24 Parganas District (West Bengal) P. argentipes DDT Resistant Basak and Tandon (1995) [31]
 Hoogly District (West Bengal) P. argentipes DDT Susceptible Chandra et al. (1995) [32]
 Maldah District (West Bengal) P. argentipes DDT Resistant (40–61.5%mortality) Kumar et al. (2015) [33]
 Pondicherry P. argentipes DDT Tolerant Amalraj et al. (1999) [34]
BHC Tolerant
malathion Resistant
deltamethrin Resistant
permethrin Resistant
bendiocarb Susceptible
P. papatasi DDT Tolerant
BHC Susceptible
malathion Tolerant
deltamethrin Tolerant
permethrin Resistant
bendiocarb Susceptible
 Vaishali P. argentipes DDT Resistant (71–78 % mortality) to almost susceptible (97.57 % mortality) Singh et al. (2001) [35]
 Darbhanga    Susceptible (98.24 % mortality) to tolerant (96.28 % mortality)
 Patna and Samastipur districts (Bihar)    Susceptible (100 % mortality)
 Nainital and Almora districts (Uttarakhand) P. argentipes DDT Susceptible Rao et al. (2001) [40]
 Vaishali District P. argentipes DDT Resistant Dhiman et al. (2003) [36]
deltamethrin Susceptible
 Patna District (Bihar)   DDT Susceptible
malathion Susceptible
 Muzaffarpur, Vaishali and Patna districts combined (Bihar) P. argentipes DDT Resistant (43 % mortality) Dinesh et al. (2010) [37]
deltamethrin Susceptible (95–100 % mortality)
 Gadchiroli District (Maharashtra), Ramgarh District (Jharkhand), Katihar and Vaishali districts (Bihar) P. argentipes DDT Resistant Singh et al. (2012) [39]
malathion Susceptible
deltamethrin Susceptible
 Patna District (Bihar)   DDT Verification required (89 % mortality)
malathion and deltamethrin Susceptible
 Patna P. argentipes DDT Resistant, tolerant and susceptible Singh and Kumar (2015) [38]
 Vaishali    Resistant, tolerant
 Muzaffarpur
Resistant, tolerant and susceptible
 Samastipur, Sheohar and Sitamarhi districts (Bihar) Resistant
Susceptible
Resistant
C. Nepal
 Dhansua District P. argentipes DDT Susceptible to both insecticides Anonymous (2000) [43]
P. papatasi malathion
 Dhansua District P.argentipes malathion, bendiocarb, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin Susceptible to all insecticides Environmental Health Project (2001) [42]
 Sunsari and Morang districts P. argentipes DDT Resistant (62%mortality) in bordering area with India, otherwise susceptible in other areas Dinesh et al. (2010) [37]
deltamethrin Susceptible (96–99 % mortality)
D. Sri Lanka
 Delft islands P. argentipes malathion Biochemical evidence of resistance Surendran et al. (2005) [44]