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Table 1 Aspects of contamination- and exposure-related themes and outcomes

From: Towards interruption of schistosomiasis transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: developing an appropriate environmental surveillance framework to guide and to support ‘end game’ interventions

Aspect Activity themes Outcome indicators
  Schistosome species of medical or veterinary significance, or of both? Qualitative/quantitative, at what reporting scale - local or national?
Contamination Collection of host and non-host snails
 -environmental variables (altitude, habitat type, limnology, seasonality etc.)
 -molecular detection of infection
Snails present, abundance
 -elevation, lentic or loctic, water temperature, pH, conductivity, season
 -%age thresholds (H:NH b )
Use of briefly deployed sentinel snails
 -molecular detection of infection
H snails (& NH if present)
 -%age thresholds (H:NH)
Detection of eDNAa
 -molecular detection of schistosomes
Schistosomes present
 -schistosome species
Exposure Cercariometry
 -molecular detection of schistosomes
Schistosomes present
 - schistosome species
Collection of host snails
 -identification of infection by microscopy
 -molecular detection of infection
 -molecular identification of cercariae
Snails present, abundance
 -patent schistosomes, chronobiology
 - %age thresholds (H)
 - schistosome species
Use of briefly deployed sentinel rodents
 -non-invasive molecular diagnostics/autopsy
Schistosomes present
 - schistosome species
Detection of eDNAa
 -molecular detection of schistosomes
Schistosomes present
 - schistosome species
  1. ait is not possible to differentiate between miracidia and cercariae by current DNA methods, even with those that can currently differentiate larvae by epigenetic methylations, thus contamination- and exposure-related events are confounded
  2. bH- host snail species (known to be permissive by finding natural infections or by experimental challenge), NH – non-host snail species (refractory in natural or by experimental challenge)