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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics and history of malaria in malnourished and nourished under-five children in Shashogo, Southern Ethiopia, 2015

From: The association between malaria and malnutrition among under-five children in Shashogo District, Southern Ethiopia: a case-control study

Variables   Frequency (%) Malnourished
n (%)
Nourished
n (%)
Crude OR (95%CI) P-value
Age, in months 6–12a 74 (20.8) 21 (28.4) 53 (71.6) 1 (0.603–1.654) 0.06
13–25 107 (30.1) 37 (34.6) 70 (65.4) 1.39 (0.936–2.07)
26–38 126 (35.4) 20 (15.9) 106 (84.1) 0.505 (0.316–0.806)
39–59 49 (13.7) 11 (22.5) 38 (77.5) 0.819 (0.427–1.57)
Sex Malea 160 (44.9) 45 (28.1) 115 (71.9) 1 (0.712–1.400) 0.17
Female 196 (55.1) 44 (22.4) 152 (77.6) 0.716 (0.514–1.00)
Family size <4a 49 (13.8) 12 (24.5) 37 (75.5) 1 (0.532–1.89) 0.35
4–6 136 (38.2) 28 (20.6) 108 (79.4) 0.751 (0.499–1.330)
>6 171 (48.0) 49 (28.7) 122 (71.3) 1.144 (0.823–1.593)
Family monthly income <USD 15a 188 (52.8) 61 (32.4) 127 (67.6) 1 (0.744–1.364) 0.0001*
USD 15–25 98 (27.5) 21 (21.4) 77 (78.6) 0.578 (0.360–0.93)
≥USD 25 70 (19.7) 7 (10.0) 63 (90.0) 0.222 (0.100–0.484)
Marital status of the caregiver Marrieda 333 (93.5) 78 (23.4) 255 (76.6) 1 (0.762–1.317) 0.763
Single 3 (0.8) 1 (33.3) 2 (66.7) 0.730 (0.421–1.265)
Divorced 6 (1.7) 2 (33.3) 4 (66.7) 5.464 (1.000–29.833)
Widowed 10 (2.8) 3 (30.0) 7 (70.0) -------
Separated 4 (1.2) 2 (50.0) 2 (50.0) 2.732 (0.385–19.396)
Literacy/ educational status of the caregiver Cannot read or write 249 (69.9) 70 (28.1) 179 (71.9) 1 (0.756–1.31) 0.066
Can read or 16 (4.5) 2 (33.3) 14 (66.7) 0.349 (0.078–1.534)
Primary (1–8) 84 (23.6) 16 (19.0) 68 (81.0) 0.620 (0.363–1.054)
Secondary and above 7 (2.0) 1 (14.3) 6 (85.7) 0.407 (0.049-3.376)
Occupation of the caregiver Housewifea 262 (73.6) 73 (27.7) 189 (72.1) 1 (0.756–0.293) 0.085
Farmer 82 (23.0) 16 (19.5) 66 (80.5) 0.659 (0.381–1.11)
Student 9 (2.5) 0 (0) 9 (100.0) -----
Pprivate worker 3 (0.9) 0 (0) 3 (100.0) ------
Religion of the caregiver Christiana 220 (61.8) 49 (22.3) 171 (77.7) 1 (0.732–1.368) 0.107
Muslim 132 (37.1) 38 (28.8) 94 (71.2) 1.391 (0.957–2.02)
Other 4 (1.1) 2 (50.0) 2 (50.0) 3.311 (0.467–23.507)
Previous malaria status Negativea 254 (71.4) 52 (20.5) 202 (79.5) 1.00 (0.742–1.346) 0.016*
Positive 102 (28.6) 37 (36.3) 65 (63.7) 1.96 (1.304–2.940)
Type of Plasmodium species P. falciparum a 36 (35.3) 10 (27.8) 26 (72.2) 1.00 (0.481–2.073) 0.22
P. vivax 66 (64.7) 27 (40.9) 39 (59.1) 1.73 (1.055–2.844)
Elapsed time since last malaria onset 2–5 monthsa 63 (61.8) 22 (34.9) 41 (65.1) 1.00 (0.596–1.678) 0.67
6–12 months 39 (38.2) 14 (35.9) 25 (64.1) 0.97 (0.484–1.953)
  1. *Statistically significant when P < 0.05
  2. areference category