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Table 2 Demographic and initial characteristics of the 1,212 immigrants enrolled in the study, according to HBV serology

From: Hepatitis B virus infection in undocumented immigrants and refugees in Southern Italy: demographic, virological, and clinical features

  HBsAg positive HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive HBsAg/anti-HBc negative HBsAg positive + HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive vs. negative for both
N° of patients 116 490 606  
Age, years, mean ± SD 32.4 ± 8 α 34 ± 10 b 33.7 ± 11 c 0.50
Males, n° (%) 97 (81.5) 396 (80.8) 420 (70) 0.000
Legal status     0.9
 Undocumented immigrants 78 (71.6) 339 (69.2) 414 (68)  
 Low-income refugees 38 (28.4) 151 (30.8) 192 (31.7)  
Country of origin, n° (% by row)
 Eastern Europe, 233 cases 14 (6.0) 73 (31.3) 146 (62.7) 0.000
 Northern Africa, 87 cases 3 (3.5) 17 (19.5) 67 (77.0)  
 SSA, 665 cases 93 (14.0) 345 (51.9) 227 (34.1)  
 India-Pakistan area, 175 cases 5 (2.9) 46 (26.3) 124 (70.8)  
 Others, 52 cases 1 (1.9) 9 (17.3) 42 (80.8)  
In Italy for months, mean ± SD 42.2 ± 50 52.7 ± 51 51 ± 55.5 0.92
Years of schooling, mean ± SD 4.5 ± 3.9 12.9 ± 2.9 8.1 ± 5.3 0.000
n° (%) with alcohol intake 22 (16) 102 (20.8) 131 (21.6) 0.67
Declared risk factors, n° (% by column)
 Drug addiction 0 5 (1) 3 (0.5)  
 Unsafe sexual intercourse 21 (18) 85 (17.3) 113 (18.6) 0.68
 Surgery, dental care, abortion 56 (48.3) 247 (50.4) 315 (52)  
 Blood transfusion 2 (1.7) 10 (2) 4 (0.7)  
 Other parenteral exposurea 93 (80) 351 (71.6) 441 (72.8)  
 Did not declare risk factors 12 (10.3) 71 (14.5) 92 (15.2)  
  1. aUnsafe injection therapy, acupuncture, tattoo, piercing, tribal practices