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Table 5 Results from univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis with undernutrition as outcome

From: Prevalence and risk factors of undernutrition among schoolchildren in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso

Undernutrition
N = 385 / N(cases) = 135
Univariable logistic regressiona Multivariable logistic regressionb
OR 95% CI P aOR 95% CI P
Sex Male 1.00      
Female 0.70 0.45–1.09 0.112 0.72 0.46–1.14 0.163
Age group 8–11 year 1.00      
12–14 years 3.57 2.20–5.78 <0.001 3.45 2.12–5.62 <0.001
Region Centre-Ouest 1.00      
Plateau Central 0.89 0.35–2.27 0.804    
Multiple pathogenic parasites ”yes” vs. “no” 1.94 1.09–3.47 0.025 1.87 1.02–3.43 0.044
Intestinal pathogenic protozoa “yes” vs. “no” 1.78 1.03–3.06 0.039 1.71 0.97–3.03 0.064
Hymenolepis nana “yes” vs. “no” 1.42 0.60–3.36 0.425    
Schisotosoma haematobium “yes” vs. “no” 0.76 0.22–2.56 0.659    
Giardia intestinalis “yes” vs. “no” 1.44 0.90–2.32 0.131 1.46 0.89–2.40 0.133
Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar “yes” vs. “no” 1.39 0.85–2.25 0.187 1.41 0.85–2.34 0.184
Anaemia No 1.00      
Mild 1.59 0.89–2.85 0.121 1.24 0.67–2.31 0.486
Moderatec 2.89 1.48–5.64 0.002 2.52 1.25–5.08 0.010
  Middle score (2) 1.00      
Hygiened Lower category (1) 1.15 0.59–2.25 0.676    
  Best category (3) 1.36 0.82–2.25 0.233    
Sanitary behaviour at school Open defecatione 1.00      
Using latrines at school 0.97 0.48–1.95 0.922    
  Others (at teachers’) Na      
Household sanitary conditions Improved latrines 1.00      
No latrines/open defecation 0.96 0.54–0.54 0.886    
Traditional latrine 1.18 0.60–2.29 0.634    
Availability of soap “yes” vs. “no” 1.14 0.70–1.84 0.599    
Child’s eating habits (day prior to the survey) Breakfast “no vs. yes”f 0.72 0.38–1.38 0.326    
Lunch “no vs. yes”f 1.88 0.89–4.00 0.100 1.52 0.69–3.32 0.298
Dinner “no vs. yes”f 1.30 0.57–2.99 0.534    
Child “heard about malnutrition” “no vs. yes”f 1.11 0.64–1.95 0.709    
Caregiver “heard about malnutrition” “no vs. yes”f 1.14 0.67–1.94 0.618    
“Breastfed child” “no vs. yes”f 2.20 0.41–11.71 0.354    
Caregiver’s education Never went to school 1.00      
Primary education 1.30 0.71–2.37 0.390    
Secondary education 0.87 0.40–1.89 0.716    
Caregiver’s occupation Agriculture 1.00      
Civil service 0.35 0.04–3.01 0.341    
Merchant 0.35 0.33–5.23 0.702    
  Othersg 0.71 0.28–1.85 0.487    
  1. a P-value and odds ratio (OR) based on likelihood ratio test. In univariable logistic regression, the overall P-value of the models is indicated in bold letters
  2. b P-value and adjusted (a) OR based on likelihood ratio test of the multivariable regression model. The mixed multivariable logistic regression model with random school intercepts included the categorical exposure variables sex, age group, socioeconomic domains and project region. All risk factors that had a P-value lower than 0.2 in the univariable analyses were included into the multivariable regression analysis (as indicated in the table)
  3. c The category of moderate anaemia includes the severely anaemic children (n = 3)
  4. d This variable was created with two conceptually similar categorical variables of: (i) mode of handwashing (handwashing with soap and water, with water only, with ash, no handwashing); and (ii) handwashing frequency (before eating, after eating, after playing, and after defecation) where multiple responses were possible. Children were classified into one of three categories, with lower, middle and better hygiene behaviours
  5. e Open defecation includes the category of defaecating in the bush and behind the latrines
  6. f The reference category for the OR is “yes” as compared to “no”
  7. g ‘Others’ includes homemakers, retirees and unemployed people