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Table 1 Contrasting paradigms of governance of the twentieth century and an alternative paradigm emerging in the twenty-first century

From: Socio-ecological dynamics and challenges to the governance of Neglected Tropical Disease control

Dominant paradigm displayed in the twentieth century Emerging alternative paradigms for the twenty-fist century
Problem solving/goal seeking orientation Learning orientation
Focus on short term gains Focus on sustainability and the long-term
Assumed predictability and certainty Unpredictability and uncertainty
Control Adaptive/reflexive/transitional management
Linear causality Recognition for holistic/integrative thinking
One “truth” or best answer No final “best” answer
Observer status objective Observer status is constructed/subjective
Focuses on parts Focuses on the whole
Analysis/reduction Synthesis
Structural constancy Structural changes affect function
Asymptotic stability Multiple stable states
Reliance on simple cause and effect Recognition of emergent properties of systems
Assumes systems models to be models of the world (ontologies) Assumes systems models to be intellectual constructs (epistemologies)
Science and technology have the required answers Scepticism and critical evaluation of science and technology
Talks the language of problems and solutions Talks the language of “situation of concern” accommodations
  1. Adapted from: Allison & Hobbs [20]