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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted analyses for factors associated with hookworm infection at the 15-month follow-up point

From: Impact of single annual treatment and four-monthly treatment for hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, and factors associated with residual infection among Kenyan school children

   Proportion infected Intensity of infection
Variables Categories Odds ratio (95% CI) P Adjusted odds ratioa (95% CI) Adjusted P Epg ratio (95% CI) P
Child characteristics
 Sex Male 1   1   1  
Female 0.44 (0.20–0.97) 0.034 0.43 (0.20–0.97) 0.041 0.18 (0.03–1.00) 0.070
 Age group 5–8 1   1   1  
9–10 1.93 (0.64–5.82)   2.01 (0.66–6.07)   2.95 (0.26–32.67)  
11–12 1.59 (0.50–5.01) 0.576 1.53 (0.48–4.83) 0.405 1.10 (0.10–12.36) 0.537
13–15 2.02 (0.67–6.10)   1.88 (0.62–5.72)   4.19 (0.37–47.11)  
 Anemia Yes 0.56 (0.24–1.30) 0.162 0.50 (0.21–1.16) 0.095 1.83 (0.27–12.55) 0.628
 Thin Yes 1.81 (0.72–4.58) 0.235 1.66 (0.65–4.23) 0.318 5.21 (0.34–78.8) 0.152
 Stunted Yes 2.05 (1.00–4.20) 0.050 1.92 (0.93–3.96) 0.080 2.76 (0.20–350.5) 0.681
 Underweight Yes 8.46 (2.23–32.01) 0.005 5.50 (1.65–18.28) 0.006 2.87 (0.42–19.77) 0.258
 Baseline infection
  Hookworm infection Yes 2.02 (1.32–3.09) 0.001 1.63 (0.74–3.61) 0.225 0.79 (0.13–4.84) 0.804
  Hookworm intensity 0 1   1   1  
1–999 1.67 (0.75–3.72) 0.087 0.29 (0.08–1.14) 0.110 0.75 (0.13–4.48) 0.890
> = 1 000 6.19 (1.48–28.88)   1   0.85 (0.00–217.17)  
Household characteristics
 Socioeconomic status Poor 1   1   1  
Less poor 0.97 (0.85–1.01) 0.608 0.97 (0.84–1.10) 0.593 1.08 (1.13–8.99) 0.734
 Water source Not covered 1   1   1  
Covered 0.53 (0.12–2.40) 0.445 0.49 (0.11–2.26) 0.398 1.41 (0.10–160.42) 0.893
 Floor Mud 1   1   1  
Cemented 0.97 (0.22–4.31) 0.977 0.97 (0.22–4.31) 0.970 0.34 (0.00–42.88) 0.700
 Pit latrine No 1   1   1  
Yes 0.45 (0.19–1.08) 0.956 0.43 (0.18–1.05) 0.085 0.39 (0.03–5.73) 0.443
School characteristics
 Baseline school infection level
  Hookworm prevalence <33 1   1   1  
34–45 0.63 (0.23–1.72) 0.605 0.58 (0.21–1.61) 0.864 0.52 (0.06–4.94) 0.380
>45% 0.96 (0.42–2.17)   0.91 (0.40–2.06)   1.94 (0.26–14.32)  
  Hookworm epg 6–35 1   1   1  
44–90 1.91 (0.81–4.48) 0.203 1.77 (0.75–4.18) 0.278 3.34 (0.43–26.04)  
102–453 0.98 (0.37–2.62)   0.97 (0.36–2.59)   1.04 (0.12–2.62) 0.187
  Latrine cleanliness Clean 1   1   1  
Dirty 0.40 (0.13–1.19)   1.77 (0.75–4.18) 0.127 0.74 (0.10–5.68)  
Very dirty 1.27 (0.56–2.89) 0.110 0.97 (0.36–2.59)   4.32 (0.46–40.81) 0.341
  Children per latrine <50:1 1   1   1  
>50:1 1.06 (0.51–2.18) 0.873 1.07 (0.52–2.22) 0.848 0.76 (0.32–1.80) 0.528
Environmental characteristics
 Elevation   1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.300 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.344 1  
 LST   0.73 (0.51–1.05) 0.101 1.09 (0.72–1.65) 0.670 0.75 (0.29–1.96) 0.564
 NDVI 0.47–0.53 1   1   1  
0.54–0.57 0.82 (0.33–2.03) 0.442 0.89 (0.36–2.21) 0.833 0.48 (0.06–4.16) 0.289
0.58–0.67 1.20 (0.50–2.89)   1.15 (0.48–2.78)   1.78 (0.20–16.08)  
 Distance from water bodies   1.08 (0.46–2.58) 0.854 1.10 (0.46–2.62) 0.831 0.60 (0.08–4.44) 0.615
  1. Abbreviations: NDVI Normalized difference vegetation index, LST Land surface temperature
  2. Elevation meters above sea level
  3. aAdjusted for sex and hookworm baseline infection