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Table 4 Unadjusted and adjusted analyses for factors associated with A. lumbricoides infection at the 15-month follow-up point

From: Impact of single annual treatment and four-monthly treatment for hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, and factors associated with residual infection among Kenyan school children

   Proportion infected Intensity of infection
Variable Categories Odds ratio (95% CI) P Adjusteda odds ratio (95% CI) Adjusted P Epg ratio (95% CI) P
Child characteristics
 Sex Male 1   1   1  
Female 0.79 (0.39–1.61) 0.510 0.79 (0.38–1.61) 0.510 0.65 (0.09–4.93) 0.683
 Age group 5–8 1   1   1  
9–10 1.06 (0.43–2.65)   1.07 (0.43–2.65)   0.53 (0.03–8.27)  
11–12 0.66 (0.24–1.84) 0.781 0.66 (0.24–1.84) 0.752 0.18 (0.01–3.02) 0.650
13–15 0.80 (0.29–2.23)   0.80 (0.29–2.24)   0.54 (0.03–9.30)  
 Anaemia Yes 1.23 (0.59–2.57) 0.572 1.42 (0.68–2.95) 0.354 2.85 (0.34–23.52) 0.328
 Thin Yes 1.53 (0.58–2.50) 0.703 1.48 (0.56–3.88) 0.441 1.33 (0.06–31.92) 0.859
 Stunted Yes 1.16 (0.54–1.51) 0.989 1.13 (0.52–2.42) 0.763 1.99 (0.21–18.49) 0.527
 Underweight Yes 0.74 (0.09–6.00) 0.766 0.62 (0.08–4.98) 0.628 7.51 (0.03–1923.72) 0.319
 Baseline infection
   A. lumbricoides infection Yes 4.37 (1.62–11.82) 0.001 3.66 (1.36–9.90) 0.010 2.36 (0.24–23.45) 0.467
   A. lumbricoides intensity 0 1   1   1  
1–4 999 3.77 (1.34–10.61) 0.003 0.62 (0.28–1.39) 0.259 2.88 (0.33–25.16) 0.617
> = 5 000 6.02 (1.96–18.46)   1   2.78 (0.16–49.85)  
Household characteristics
 Socioeconomic status Poor 1   1   1  
Less poor 0.98 (0.86–1.11) 0.736 0.98 (0.86–1.11) 0.736 1.08 (0.13–8.99) 0.941
 Water source Not covered 1   1   1  
Covered 0.61 (0.11–3.12) 0.570 0.61 (0.11–3.12) 0.570 1.64 (0.03–905.05) 0.883
 Floor Mud 1   1   1  
Cemented 0.55 (0.07–4.39) 0.545 0.55 (0.07–4.39) 0.545 1.82 (0.03–130.16) 0.764
 Pit latrine No 1   1   1  
Yes 1.75 (0.49–6.25) 0.359 1.75 (0.49–6.25) 0.359 2.20 (0.10–50.24) 0.656
School characteristics
 Baseline school infection level
   A. lumbricoides prevalence <27% 1   1   1  
28–30% 4.02 (1.47–14.55)   4.04 (1.08–15.16)   4.02 (0.34–47.00) 0.630
>40% 0.60 (2.62–21.89) 0.019 0.60 (1.57–19.54) 0.011 5.61 (0.51–61.74)  
   A. lumbricoides epg 366–913 1   1   1  
914–2 497 2.00 (0.63–6.33) 0.095 2.00 (0.63–6.33) 0.095 1.26 (0.11–14.12) 0.878
>2 497 3.48 (1.17–10.36)   3.38 (1.17–10.36)   2.27 (0.19–27.90)  
  Latrine cleanliness Clean 1   1   1  
Dirty 0.53 (0.20–1.41) 0.049 0.48 (0.21–1.21) 0.030 0.17 (0.01–1.88) 0.446
Very dirty 0.18 (0.04–0.86)   0.21 (0.05–0.92)   0.23 (0.02–3.09)  
  Children per latrine <50:1 1   1   1  
>50:1 0.74 (0.27–2.04) 0.554 0.74 (0.27–2.04) 0.554 1.21 (0.16–9.11) 0.852
Environmental characteristics
 Elevation   1.04 (0.99–1.01) 0.402 1.01 (1.00–1.03) 0.040 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 0.991
 LST (oC) 18.0–19.9 1   1   1  
20.0–20.7 0.49 (0.21–1.12) 0.396 2.16 (0.62–7.55) 0.112 0.31 (0.03–3.63) 0.260
20 0.21 (0.05–0.92)   3.08 (0.97–9.80)   1.23 (0.08–17.9)  
 NDVI 0.47–0.53 1   1   0.02 (0.00–1.45) 0.761
0.54–0.57 1.33 (0.34–5.21) 0.959 2.22 (0.71–6.92) 0.345   
0.58–0.67 1.67 (0.43–6.51)   1.63 (0.63–4.23)    
 Distance from water bodies   0.82 (0.40–1.70) 0.586 0.84 (0.24–2.99) 0.793 0.21 (0.00–22.94) 0.505
  1. Abbreviations: NDVI Normalized difference vegetation index, LST Land surface temperature
  2. Elevation meters above sea level
  3. aAdjusted for sex and A. lumbricoides baseline infection, school-level A. lumbricoides baseline infection, and latrine cleanliness