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Table 1 Characteristics, objectives and outcomes of schistosomiasis studies focusing on Zambia that have been included in the review

From: Schistosomiasis in Zambia: a systematic review of past and present experiences

Author and Year Study objectives Type of study Study focus Study location Major outcomes of study
Mubila & Rollinson (2002) [30] The study explored the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in school children from three disparate areas of Zambia. Furthermore, the compatibility of snails with schistosome parasites from different areas was also investigated. Cross section and experimental Parasitological and snail biology Lake Kariba, Lake Bangweulu and Lusaka 1. Schistosoma haematobium infection prevalence was 0% around Lake Bangweulu and 76% around Lake Kariba.
2. F1 progeny snails were highly compatible with the parasite from the local area. The snails were also compatible with all strains of S. haematobium collected and tested from different areas.
3. Lake Bangweulu was observed to be an area of low endemicity however, the snails from this area were compatible with straits of S. haematobium from both Bangweulu and other areas.
Chimbari et al. (2003) [41] To explore the differences in the prevalence and intensities of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni transmission in Lake Kariba and Siavonga longitudinal study Parasitological and snail ecology Siavonga 1. The prevalence of S. haematobium and S. mansoni infection among school children in Siavonga was 19.4% and 33.5%, respectively.
2. This was higher than that observed in Lake Kariba separated by a distance of 10 km.
3. Better water and sanitation facilities were observed to be the major factor for reduced prevalence of schistosomiasis in Kariba compared to Siavonga.
Simoonga et al. (2008) [37] The study investigated the risk factors of urinary schistosomiasis and examined at small-scale the spatial heterogeneity in disease prevalence Cross-sectional Socio-demographics, parasitological and climatic factors Lusaka 1. The risk factors were geographical location, altitude, normalized difference vegetation index, maximum temperature, age, sex of the child and IH snail abundance.
2. The mean prevalence rate was 9.6%.
3. Infection risk was highly correlated with IH host snail abundance and vegetation cover.
4. Location of the school (plateau or valley) had influence on the prevalence and intensity of infection.
Silwambe & Baboo (2009) [32] The study determined the levels of knowledge and risk factors linked to the spread of the parasite among school children. Cross-sectional Socio-demographics and parasitological factors Kaoma 1. The study observed that only 30% of the respondents had knowledge on the existence of the parasite.
2. The use of contaminated water for recreational purposes was found to be the main risk factor.
3. About 73% of the sampled respondents tested positive for S. mansoni and 21% were co-infected with both S. mansoni and hookworm.
Mutengo et al. (2010) [45] The study determined and documented the presence of genital schistosomiasis from biopsy specimens Cross-sectional Socio-demographics, and histopathological factors Samples collected from different parts of the country 1. The prevalence of female genital tract schistosomiasis was (84.2%).
2. Fifty three percent of females in the age group of 30–42 years had genital schistosomiasis. This was flowed by the age group of 17–29 years age group (25%).
3. Malignancy was clinically suspected in 74% of the genital schistosomiasis patients.
Agnew-Blais et al. (2010) [38] The study determined the
(i) prevalence of S. haematobium infection in a peri-urban school-aged population using the urinalysis (ii) the risk factors associated with infection in the study population
(iii) the success of infection detection using in-school screening and examination processes
Observational/cross sectional Socio-demographics and parasitological factors Lusaka 1. Infection rate of 20.72% was observed in children between ages of 5 and 17 years.
2. Infection rates were higher for males (28.40%) than females (13.95%).
3. Detection of infection in the laboratory had a sensitivity of 24.70% and a specificity of 98.17% following suspicions.
Strahan et al. (2012) [34] The study evaluated the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni-related liver disease among school-age children living along the Zambezi River Observational/cross sectional Radiology and parasitological factors Zambezi 1. Six students (1.5%) tested positive for S. mansoni eggs in their stool specimen.
2. 284 (37.2%) children were observed to be in danger of peri-portal fibrosis on ultra-sound.
3. Six (1.5%) were positive for S. mansoni eggs.
4. Four children were observed to be at risk of advanced fibrosis.
Payne et al. (2013) [33] The study aimed at:
(i)Assessing the burden of hepatosplenic pathology in Kaoma
(ii) assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections
Cross-sectional Socio-demographics, clinical and parasitological factors Kaoma 1. Ninety-seven (88%) respondents tested positive for Schistosoma antibodies.
2. Seventy-nine percent (n = 110) of the respondents tested positive for schistosoma antibodies in the blood Luampa while in Luena, 95% of the respondents were positive.
3. Forty-six (46) of the respondents reported blood in stool.
4. After clinical examinations, 27% of the respondents showed hepatomegaly, 17% splenomegaly, and 72% pallor.
Mutengo et al. (2014) [44] The study aimed at determining the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and associated morbidity in four rural communities of western Zambia Cross-sectional Socio-demographics and parasitological factors Kaoma 1. The burden of the disease in the study areas was high.
2. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection and geometric mean egg count (GMEC) were 42.4% and 86.6 eggs per gram of faeces, respectively.
3. Prevalence was highest in the age group of 15–19 years old.
4. Prevalence of fibrosis due to infection was high among female than male respondents.
Shawa et al. (2014) [35] The study aimed at documenting the occurrence and prevalence on schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STHs) in some parts of Zambia Cross-sectional Socio-demographics and parasitological factors Luangwa
1. The prevalence of S. haematobium was generally low. Highest prevalence of 3.0% was recorded in Serenje.
2. In Kalabo, the prevalence of S. mansoni was 37.5%.
3. The prevalence of hookworms ranged from12.1 to 35.0% at all three sites.
4. Some of the STHs observed were Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana and Enterobius vermicularis.
Monde et al. (2016) [40] The study examined the influence of environmental and socio-economic factors on the population dynamics of the intermediate host snails Multi-level Socio-economic and environmental factors Sinazongwe Siavonga Solwezi Mufumbwe Zambezi 1. Gender significantly influences livelihood strategies.
2. Environmental parameters measured significantly influenced snail species composition, abundance and distribution.
3. Fifty-two (52%) and eighty-seven (87%) of the respondents in region I and III perceived that most schistosomiasis cases occurred during the hot season.
Halwindi et al. (2016) [31] The study sought to determine the potential contribution of adult populations to the maintenance of schistosome and soil-transmitted helminth transmission Cross-sectional Socio-demographics and parasitological factors Mazabuka, Siavonga 1. The prevalence of schistosomiasis among adults in Siavonga was 13.9%.
2. In the same area, the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm was 12.1%.
3. No case of S. mansoni was observed in Mazabuka while the prevalence of S. haematobium was 5.3%.
4. The prevalence of A. lumbricoides and hookworm in the same area was 7.4%.
Simoonga & Kazembe (2017) [36] The study quantified the risk factors associated with the intensity of urinary schistosomiasis infection among school in order to understand local transmission Cross-sectional Parasitological and climatic factors Luangwa and Kafue 1. The risk of schistosomiasis infection was strongly influenced by age, altitude at which the child lived and sex.
2. Weak associations were observed with the normalized difference vegetation index, maximum temperature and snail abundance.
3. Infection intensity was reduced in the age group of 5 and 9 years.
4. The risks of infection were higher for children living in plateau areas than those living in valley areas.