Skip to main content

Table 1 Major zoonoses

From: Unmanned aerial vehicles: potential tools for use in zoonosis control

Disease Pathogen Major reservoir host Major intermediate host Major transmission route
Angiostrongyliasis Angiostrongylus cantonensis Mice Terrestrial and marine mollusks Ingestion
Anisakiasis Anisakis spp. and Pseudoterranova spp. Marine mammals Fish Ingestion
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis Herbivores - Contact, inhalation, and ingestion
Brucellosis Brucella spp. Herbivores, pigs, and dogs - Contact
Campylobacter enteritis Campylobacter spp. Poultry and cattle - Ingestion
Clonorchiasis Clonorchis sinensis Humans, cats, dogs, mice, and other animals Freshwater snails(first), freshwater fish(second) Ingestion
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium parvum Humans, cattle, and other livestock - Ingestion
Diarrhea caused by enterohemorrhagic strains Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Cattle and humans - Ingestion
Ebola-Marburg viral disease Ebola virus and Marburg virus Fruit bats - Contact
Hydatid disease Echinococcus spp. Canines Herbivores and rodents Ingestion
Ehrlichiosis Ehrlichia spp. Ruminants, rodents, and dogs - Tick bites
Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Prion Livestock - Ingestion
Giardiasis Giardia lamblia Humans, beavers, and other animals - Ingestion
Epidemic hemorrhagic fever Hantaviruses Rodents - Inhalation
Hepatitis E Hepatitis E virus Primates - Ingestion
Influenza Influenza virus Birds and humans - Inhalation
Black fever Several species of Leishmania spp. Humans and canines - Sandfly bites
Leptospirosis Leptospira interrogans Wild animals and livestock - Contact
Listeriosis Listeria monocytogenes Environment and animals - Ingestion
Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi, B. garinii, and B. afzelii Rodents - Tick bites
Melioidosis Burkholderia pseudomallei and Whitmore bacillus Animals and environment - Contact, ingestion, or inhalation
Paragonimiasis Paragonimus spp. Humans, dogs, cats, pigs, and carnivores Freshwater snails (first), crustaceans (second) Ingestion
Plague Yersinia pestis Rodents - Flea bites and inhalation
Psittacosis Chlamydia psittaci Birds - Inhalation
Q fever Coxiella burnetii Mammals, birds, and ticks - Inhalation
Rabies Rabies virus Canines - Biting or scratching
Salmonellosis Salmonella spp. Animals - Ingestion
Schistosomiasis Schistosoma spp. Animals Snails Contact with contaminated water
Taeniasis Taenia solium and T. saginata Humans Cattle and pigs Ingestion
Tetanus Clostridium tetani Animals - Wound contact
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii Cats and other felines Sheep, goats, rodents, pigs, cattle, chickens, and birds Ingestion
Trichinellosis Trichinella spp. Animals - Ingestion
Tularemia Francisella tularensis Rodents - Arthropod bites, contact, ingestion, and inhalation
Endemic typhus Rickettsia typhi Small rodents such as mice - Contact with flea feces
Yersiniosis Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis Animals - Ingestion and contact
Skin fungal disease Microsporum spp. and Trichophyton spp. Animals - Contact
Hookworm disease Three species of Ancylostoma spp. and Necator americanus Humans, cats, dogs - Contact
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. africanum, and M. bovis Mammals such as humans and cattle - Inhalation and ingestion
Japanese encephalitis B Japanese encephalitis virus Mosquitos, mammals, and birds - Mosquito bites