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Table 2 Dietary risk factors and association with CCA

From: Thinking beyond Opisthorchis viverrini for risk of cholangiocarcinoma in the lower Mekong region: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Food Odds ratio 95% CI Casesa Comparison Source
Raw fish dishes
  koi pla 10.2 3.05–34.1 77 never vs daily Songserm 2012 [24]
  raw cyprinoid fish 3.4 1.05–11.01 100 no or <  1/month vs 3/week Manwong 2013 [25]
  raw fish 2.94 1.24–6.96 75 none vs > 2/month Honjo 2005 [23]
  koi pla 2.5 1.05–5.74 104 never vs weekly Songserm 2012 [24]
  koi pla 1.6 0.7–3.5 97 < monthly vs more Parkin 1991 [22]
Fermented fish or meat dishes
  nitrate containing foodsb 4.91 1.04–23.24 216 never vs often Poomphakwaen 2009 [2]
  fermented fish or pork 4.5 1.3–15.54 71 none vs > 2/month Honjo 2005 [23]
  beef sausage 3.7 1.28–10.7 95 never vs daily Songserm 2012 [24]
  cooked pla ra 3 0.31–28.84 34 no or <  1/month vs 1–4/week Manwong 2013 [25]
  pla ra, pla chao 2.25 0.92–5.53 129 <  3/day vs > 3/day Honjo 2005 [23]
  sour shrimp 1.93 0.47–7.93 101 no or <  1/month vs 3/week Manwong 2013 [25]
  uncooked pla ra 1.75 0.74–4.19 86 no or <  1/month vs 3/week Manwong 2013 [25]
  pla ra 1.6 0.9–2.8 96 <  3/daily vs more Parkin 1991 [22]
  pla chom 1.6 0.57–4.51 94 no or <  1/month vs 3/week Manwong 2013 [25]
  sour beef or pork 1.37 0.51–3.65 88 no or <  1/month vs 3/week Manwong 2013 [25]
  Chinese or Northeast sausage 1.3 0.51–3.35 103 none vs > 1/month Honjo 2005 [23]
  salted fish or meat 1.01 0.41–2.44 113 none vs > 6/year Honjo 2005 [23]
  pla chom 1 0.5–1.9 98 < monthly vs more Parkin 1991 [22]
  pla som 0.7 0.4–1.3 97 never vs ever Parkin 1991 [22]
  salted fish 0.5 0.2–0.9 96 < monthly vs more Parkin 1991 [22]
  pla chao 0.5 0.2–1.4 98 < monthly vs more Parkin 1991 [22]
Other fish and seafood
  total fish and shellfish 1.31 0.56–3.04 147 < 0.4 vs > 0.8/day Poomphakwaen 2009 [2]
  raw shellfish 0.85 0.27–2.74 97 no or <  1/month vs 3/week Manwong 2013 [25]
Fresh meat dishes
  raw beef or pork 3.38 1.25–9.12 91 no or <  1/month vs 3/week Manwong 2013 [25]
  raw sausage 1.19 0.48–2.97 86 no or < 1/month vs 3/week Manwong 2013 [25]
  roast meat 0.74 0.25–2.18 78 <  2/week vs > 1/day Honjo 2005 [23]
  poultry 0.62 0.23–1.7 216 < 0.2 vs > 0.4/day Poomphakwaen 2009 [2]
  beef and pork 0.31 0.08–1.2 216 <  0.45 vs > 1/day Poomphakwaen 2009 [2]
Fruits and vegetables
  fruit 1.72 0.85–3.47 98 no or < 1/month vs 3/week Manwong 2013 [25]
  fresh fruit 1.63 0.64–4.12 107 <  1/week vs > 2/week Honjo 2005 [23]
  cooked fresh vegetables 1.48 0.62–3.51 110 <  3/week vs > 1/day Honjo 2005 [23]
  vegetables 1.36 0.61–3.02 95 no or < 1/month vs 3/week Manwong 2013 [25]
  fermented vegetables or fruits 1.18 0.44–3.2 86 <  4/week vs > 2/day Honjo 2005 [23]
  fruit 0.7 0.33–0.98 219 <  52 vs > 52 times/month Songserm 2012 [24]
  fresh vegetables 0.67 0.27–1.67 95 <  1/week vs > 2/day Honjo 2005 [23]
  vegetables 0.6 0.27–1.36 190 < 1.7 vs > 1.7/day Poomphakwaen 2009 [2]
  fresh fruit 0.5 0.3–0.9 93 <  3/month vs more Parkin 1991 [22]
  fruit 0.44 0.23–0.85 156 < 1 vs > 1/day Poomphakwaen 2009 [2]
  vegetables 0.4 0.23–0.76 219 <  52 vs > 52/month Songserm 2012 [24]
Grains
  sticky rice 2.6 1.4–4.9 94 <  2/week vs more Parkin 1991 [22]
  rice 1.35 0.55–3.27 99 <  4/year vs > 3/month Honjo 2005 [23]
  sticky rice 1.03 0.47–2.24 125 <  3/day vs > 3/day Honjo 2005 [23]
  rice 0.7 0.4–1.2 94 <  3/day vs more Parkin 1991 [22]
Betel nut
  betel nut 6.4 1.1–39.3 n/a < 1/day vs more Parkin 1991 [22]
  betel nut 3 0.81–11.08 123 yes or no Manwong 2013 [25]
  betel nut 0.69 0.18–2.7 122 regular vs never chewing Honjo 2005 [23]
Other
  somtam 1.9 0.55–6.62 42 never vs daily Songserm 2012 [24]
  monosodium glutamate 1.8 1.0–3.2 97 <  2/day vs more Parkin 1991 [22]
  milk 0.5 0.3–0.9 95 < monthly vs more Parkin 1991 [22]
  1. Foods in each category are organized by odds ratio in descending order
  2. aNumber of CCA cases included in the comparison
  3. bNitrate containing foods are fermented and salted items that are high in volatile nitrosamines