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Table 4 Significant relationships between risk factors for CCA

From: Thinking beyond Opisthorchis viverrini for risk of cholangiocarcinoma in the lower Mekong region: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Risk Factors
Increased risk of CCA alcohol x smoking [23, 26]
alcohol x fermented fish [23]
GSTM1 x O. viverrini antibody [23]
GSTT1 x alcohol [23]
MTHFR x raw fish [24, 27]
MTHFR x fermented or processed meat [24]
MTHFR x O. viverrini antibody [27]
male x O. viverrini antibody [22, 46]
XRCC1 x OGG1a [26]
XRCC1 x smoking [26]
OGG1 x smoking [26]
Decreased risk of CCA CYP1A2 x male [29]
CYP1A2 x smoking [29]
GSTM1 x OGG1 [30]
XRCC1 x OGG1a [26]
  1. Individual gene risk information in Table 3
  2. aXRCC1 and OGG1 genes both exhibit multiple polymorphisms, and depending on the combination of polymorphisms present in the individual, the interaction between XRCC1 and OGG1 may increase or decrease risk