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Table 5 Random effects model meta-analyses of risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma

From: Thinking beyond Opisthorchis viverrini for risk of cholangiocarcinoma in the lower Mekong region: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Risk factor Total CCA Cases (Studies) Included in Analysis Summary Effect
Pooled OR (95% CI, P-value)
Heterogeneity
I2 (P-value)
Behaviors
 Alcohol 682 (5) [2, 22, 23, 25, 26] 2.61 (1.59–4.31, 0.002)** 68% (0.01)
 Smoking 772 (5) [2, 22, 23, 26, 29] 1.33 (1.00–1.78, 0.049)* 0% (0.56)
 Alcohol x Smoking 348 (2) [23, 26] 11.1 (5.63–21.92, < 0.0001)*** 0% (0.55)
Socioeconomics
 Education 559 (4) [2, 22,23,24] 0.46 (0.22–0.97, 0.04)* 51% (0.11)
Diet
 Fruit 682 (5) [2, 22,23,24,25] 0.8 (0.47–1.38, 0.431) 71% (0.01)
 Vegetables 579 (4) [2, 23,24,25] 0.66 (0.38–1.13, 0.127) 48% (0.12)
 Betel nut 355 (3) [22, 23, 25] 2.18 (0.62–7.63, 0.223) 54% (0.11)
 Raw fish 574 (4) [22,23,24,25] 3.26 (1.58–6.71, 0.0014)** 53% (0.10)
 Fermented fish 355 (3) [22, 23, 25] 1.18 (0.81–1.72, 0.401) 42% (0.11)
 Fermented meats 471 (3) [23,24,25] 1.81 (0.96–3.39, 0.066) 17% (0.28)
 High nitrate foods 682 (5) [2, 22,23,24,25] 1.41 (1.05–1.91, 0.024)* 46% (0.01)
 Rice 232 (2) [22, 23] 0.88 (0.48–1.63, 0.688) 34% (0.22)
 Sticky rice 232 (2) [22, 23] 1.69 (0.68–4.17, 0.258) 70% (0.07)
Genetics
 Family history 334 (3) [2, 22, 25] 3.0 (1.79–5.04, < 0.0001)*** 0% (0.64)
Immune Response
 Anti-O. viverrini antibody 461 (4) [22, 23, 25, 38] 6.09 (2.54–14.57, < 0.0001)*** 70% (0.03)
Treatment
 Praziquantel use 360 (3) [2, 23, 25] 1.93 (1.2–3.1, 0.0065)** 31% (0.25)
Other Infection
 Hepatitis B antigen 209 (2) [22, 38] 1.3 (0.59–2.85, 0.514) 0% (0.34)
  1. Summary effect pooled odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI), and I2 were calculated using random effects models for risk factors reported by 2 or more studies in the systematic review. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001