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Table 3 Treatment regimens for human toxocariasis

From: Toxocariasis: a silent threat with a progressive public health impact

Clinical forms Alternatives Regimens Remarks Therapeutic efficacy
VLM
Albendazole (ABZ) [92, 93, 140] First choice 400 mg orally twice a day for 5 days Mild side effects (e.g. dizziness, nausea, abdominal pain) were observed in some patients The cure rates (45–70%)
Mebendazole (MBZ) [52, 95] Second choice 100–200 mg orally twice a day for 5 days Mild side effects similar to adverse effects caused by ABZ The cure rates (45–70%)
Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) [52, 93] Alternative choice 40 mg/kg per day for 6 months Hypersensitivity (e.g. itching, urticaria and edema) Reduced clinical signs in 70% of patients
Sodium lauryl sulfate containing chitosan-encapsulated ABZ (ABZ/CH); polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated (‘pegylated’) form of ABZ (ABZ/PEG); liposome-encapsulated ABZ stabilized with PEG (ABZ/PEG-LE); phytochemical compounds (compound 17, or C17) [100, 141,142,143,144] Other treatments Only used in mice models To increase efficacy, co-administration of a fatty meal with the drugs are recommended for treatment of VLM; liposomal formulations can overcome low drug absorptivity in mice [97, 145] Uncertain
OT
Corticosteroid in combination with ABZ [98] First choice 400 mg of ABZ orally twice a day for 5 days Prevents scarring, vitreous opacification, membrane formation and vision loss; corticosteroid can increase blood level of ABZ Uncertain
Surgery [101, 102] Alternative choice Vitreoretinal surgery treatment e.g. pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), laser photocoagulation, and cryotherapy Indicated in cases of retinal detachment, epiretinal membrane, persistent vitreous opacity, and cataracts. NR
ABZ [99, 101] Other treatments 200 mg twice a day for one month and 400 or 800 mg twice a day for 2 weeks Reversible side effects, such as hepatotoxicity, leucopenia, and alopecia; should be avoided during pregnancy Uncertain
MBZ [99, 101] Other treatments 20 to 25 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks The optimal duration of treatment is unknown Uncertain
Thiabendazole [99, 101] Other treatments 25 to 50 mg/kg/day for 5–7 days The optimal duration of treatment is unknown Uncertain
CT
ABZ [105] First choice 200 mg twice a day for one month and 400 or 800 mg twice a day for 2 weeks ABZ is better tolerated than thiabendazole Uncertain
  1. ABZ Albendazole, MBZ Mebendazole, DEC Diethylcarbamazine, NR Not relevant, OT Ocular toxocariasis, CT Covert or common toxocariasis, VLM Visceral larva migrans