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Table 2 Pooled prevalence estimates of helminths in Nigerian ruminants based on different strata

From: Helminths of veterinary and zoonotic importance in Nigerian ruminants: a 46-year meta-analysis (1970–2016) of their prevalence and distribution

Variables No. of Studies Pooled prevalence estimates (95% CI) Heterogeneity
Sample size Cases Prev. (%) I2 (%) Q-P
Region
North-central 10 20 160 4713 23.38 22.80–23.97 99.71 0.000
North-east 9 152 517 7246 4.75 4.64–4.86 99.84 0.000
North-west 11 92 513 1926 2.08 1.99–2.18 99.79 0.000
South-east 4 28 080 7498 26.70 26.19–27.22 99.46 0.000
South-south 4 23 237 734 3.16 2.94–3.39 99.83 0.000
South-west 6 3701 1820 49.18 47.55–50.80 99.52 0.000
Hosts
Cattle 32 154 953 19 446 12.55 12.39–12.72 99.75 0.000
Goat 20 113 563 3510 3.09 2.99–3.19 99.60 0.000
Sheep 12 51 692 981 1.90 1.78–2.02 99.55 0.000
Study period
1970–1981 2 17 592 5726 32.55 31.86–33.25 95.93 0.000
1982–1993 3 2524 1090 43.19 41.24–45.14 99.75 0.000
1994–2005 5 117 606 8936 7.60 7.45–7.75 99.87 0.000
2006–2016 34 182 486 8185 4.49 4.39–4.58 99.76 0.000
Sample size
≤1000 28 9345 4070 43.55 42.54–44.57 98.81 0.000
1001–2000 5 5916 3044 51.45 50.17–52.73 99.46 0.000
> 2000 11 304 947 16 823 5.52 5.44–5.60 99.92 0.000
Study type
Abattoir-based 36 314 679 20 919 6.65 6.56–6.73 99.79 0.000
Farm-based 6 4127 2163 52.41 50.87–53.94 99.76 0.000
Market-based 2 1402 855 60.98 58.37–63.55 97.98 0.000
MOD        
Macroscopy 10 209 753 13 112 6.25 6.15–6.36 99.91 0.000
Microscopy 31 109 098 10 154 9.31 9.14–9.48 99.63 0.000
Serology 3 1357 671 49.45 46.75–52.14 99.49 0.000
Overall 44 320 208 23 937 7.48 7.38–7.57 99.78 0.000
  1. P < 0.001 for all strata; CI: Confidence interval; I2: Inverse variance index; MOD: Method of diagnosis; Prev.: Prevalence; Q-P: Cochran’s P-value