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Table 3 Pooled prevalence estimates and distribution of helminths species according to class of parasites

From: Helminths of veterinary and zoonotic importance in Nigerian ruminants: a 46-year meta-analysis (1970–2016) of their prevalence and distribution

Parasites Number of studies Pooled prevalence estimates (95% CI) Heterogeneity
Sample size Cases Prev. (%) I2 (%) Q-P
HVI Cestodes
Moniezia expansa 9 5785 368 6.36 5.75–7.02 99.51 0.000
Avitellina centripunctata 3 712 33 4.63 3.21–6.45 95.01 0.000
Taenia spp. 10 3224 104 3.23 2.64–3.90 99.17 0.000
Moniezia benedeni 4 4643 77 1.66 1.31–2.07 97.62 0.000
Overall (Cestodes) 14 364 582 4.05 3.73–4.39 97.82 0.000
Nematodes        
Strongyloides papillosus 13 7671 2459 32.06 31.01–33.11 99.90 0.000
Gongylonema spp. 1 248 41 16.53 12.13–21.75 0.00 0.594
Gaigeria spp. 1 248 35 14.11 10.03–19.08 0.00 0.742
Bunostomum phlebotomum 9 4513 407 9.02 8.20–9.89 94.16 0.000
Trichostrongylus spp. 7 3300 287 8.70 7.76–9.71 99.01 0.000
Ostertagia spp. 5 1160 99 8.53 6.99–10.29 0.00 0.436
Trichuris globulosa 8 4930 337 6.84 6.15–7.58 87.56 0.005
Cooperia pectinata 2 2663 173 6.50 5.59–7.50 0.00 0.335
Haemonchus contortus 8 4104 234 5.70 5.01–6.46 98.78 0.000
Chabertia ovina 2 464 25 5.39 3.52–7.85 0.00 0.844
Nematodirus spp. 4 1905 87 4.57 3.67–5.60 89.94 0.002
Toxocara vitulorum 10 6634 283 4.27 3.79–4.78 98.65 0.000
Trichuris ovis 7 4591 71 1.55 1.21–1.95 87.93 0.004
Overall (Nematodes) 42 431 4538 10.70 10.40–10.99 99.67 0.000
Trematodes        
Paramphistomum spp. 12 9180 1424 15.51 14.78–16.27 91.49 0.001
Eurytrema pancreaticum 3 672 81 12.05 9.69–14.76 98.76 0.000
Schistosoma bovis 6 1926 191 9.92 8.62–11.34 95.54 0.000
Dicrocoelium hospes 5 7809 641 8.21 7.61–8.84 98.57 0.000
Dicrocoelium dendriticum 4 3436 152 4.42 3.76–5.17 71.93 0.059
Gastrothylax spp. 2 464 14 3.02 1.66–5.01 46.71 0.171
Overall (Trematodes) 23 478 2503 10.66 10.27–11.06 98.79 0.000
HZI        
T. saginata/C. bovis 5 58 925 9315 15.81 15.51–16.11 98.79 0.000
Fasciola gigantica 20 53 402 7390 13.84 13.55–14.13 99.97 0.000
Oesophagostomum spp. 7 3397 462 13.60 12.46–14.80 0.00 0.799
Echinococcus/Hydatid cyst 4 202 160 213 0.11 0.09–0.12 77.86 0.034
Overall (HZI)   317 884 17 380 5.47 5.39–5.55 99.95 0.000
  1. CI: Confidence interval; HVI: Helminths of veterinary importance; HZI: Helminths of zoonotic importance; I2: Inverse variance index; Prev.: Prevalence; Q-P: Cochran’s P-value