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Table 2 Microbiology and malaria microscopy findings of children under-5 years enrolled in the study

From: Treatable causes of fever among children under five years in a seasonal malaria transmission area in Burkina Faso

Subcategory General population
n/N (%)
Referral hospital
n/N (%)
Health facilities
n/N (%)
Malaria microscopy 684/684 (100) 138/138 (100) 546/546 (100)
 Malaria microscopy positive 340/684 (49.71) 41/138 (29.71) 299/546 (54.76)
  Plasmodium falciparuma 340/340 (100) 41/138 (29.71) 299/546 (54.76)
  Plasmodium malariae 04/340 (0.88) 0/138 (0) 4/299 (1.34)
  Plasmodium ovalae 01/340 (0.29) 0/138 (0) 1/299 (0.33)
Blood cultures (N = 684) 684/684 (100) 138/138 (100) 546/546 (100)
 Bacterial culture positive 41/684 (5.99) 21/138 (15.22) 20/546 (3.66)
  Non-Typhoid Salmonella spp. 31/41 (75.61) 19/21 (90.48) 12/20 (60.00)
  Salmonella typhi 02/41 (4.88) 00 02/20 (10.00)
  Escherichia coli 01/41 (2.44) 00 01/20 (5.00)
  Staphylococcus aureus 02/41 (4.88) 01/21 (4.76) 01/20 (5.00)
  Streptococcus pneumoniae 03/41 (7.31) 01/21 (4.76) 02/20 (10.00)
  Neisseria meningitidis 02/41 (4.88) 00 02/20 (10.00)
Urine examination (N = 507) 507/684 (74.12) 94/138 (68.12) 413/546 (75.64)
 Bacterial culture positive 10/507 (1.97) 04/94 (4.26) 06/413 (1.45)
  Escherichia coli 10/10 (100.00) 04/4 (100) 06/6 (100)
Stool examinations (N = 523) 523/684 (76.46) 85/138 (61.60) 438/546 (80.22)
 Bacterial culture positive 40/523 (7.65) 09/85 (10.59) 31/438 (7.08)
  Non-Typhoid Salmonella 20/40 (50.00) 08/9 (88.89) 16/31 (38.71)
  Escherichia coli 17/40 (42.50) 01/9 (11.11) 16/31 ()51.61
  Shigella 03/40 (7.50) 00 03/31 (9.69)
 Parasites positive 143/523 (27.34) 17/85 (20.00) 126/438 (28.77)
  Mono parasitosisb 115/143 (80.42) 11/17 (64.71) 104/126 (82.54)
  Bi parasitosis 25/143 (17.48) 05/17 (29.41) 20/126 (15.87)
  Tri parasitosis 03/143 (2.10) 01/17 (5.88) 02/126 (1.59)
 Rotavirus/Adenovirus positive 25/523 (4.78) 04/85 (4.71) 21/438 (4.80)
  Rotavirus 15/25 (60.00) 00 15/21 (71.43)
  Adenovirus 10/25 (40.00) 04/4 (100) 06/21 (28.57)
Nasopharyngeal cultures (N = 629) 629/684 (91.95) 137/138 (99.28) 492/546 (90.11)
 Bacterial culture positive 153/629 (24.32) 41/137 (29.71) 112/492 (22.77)
  Staphylococcus aureus 148/153 (96.73) 41/41 (100) 107/112 (95.54)
  Streptococcus pneumoniae 05/153 (3.27) 00 05/112 (4.46)
No pathogens detected 162/684 (23.68) 40/138 (28.99) 122/546 (22.34)
  1. a: 5 children infection with Plasmodium falciparum were co-infected with P. malariae and P. ovale
  2. b: Giardia intestinalis: 35.65%; Trichomonas intestinalis: 22.61%; Endolimax nana: 17.40%; Entamoeba coli: 13.91%; Entamoeba hystolitica: 7.82%; Others: 2.61%