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Table 1 The overall information of LAMP assays for helminths

From: Detection of helminths by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay: a review of updated technology and future outlook

Parasites Developmental Stages Samples Hosts Target gene Accession number Sensitivity Specificity Reference
(Detection Limit)
Trematodes
C. sinensis Adult Bile duct Cat Cathepsin B3 AY273803 0.01 ng of DNA/rxn 100% [60]
Metacercaria Muscle Fish 9 metacercarias/gram
Sporocyst, redia, cercaria Tissue Snail, shrimp, fish ITS-2 AF217099 10 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [12]
(0.0002 C. sinensis per snail)
Adult Bile duct Rat Cox1 AF181889 100 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [26]
Egg Stool Human 10 EPGs
F. hepatica Adult Cattle, goat, rabbit, sheep, horse IGS GU903890 10 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [65]
Egg Stool Sheep ITS-2 JF708043 1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [66]
GQ231547
JF708026
JF708036
HM746786
AM709622
JF432071
JF432074
JF496714
KF425321
AM850108
HM746788
JN828956
Egg Stool Sheep and cattle ITS-2 DQ683546, JF824668, KJ200622, AB207148 1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [67]
F. gigantica Adult, egg and cercaria Cattle, sheep, buffalo and snail IGS GU903891 0.01 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [65]
O. viverrini Adult Bile duct Hamster ITS-1 EU038151 1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [61]
Cercaria Tissue Snail 100%
Metacercaria Muscle Fish 100%
Adult Bile duct Hamster Cross reaction with O. felineus, F. gigantica and Haplorchoihoides sp., no template-free amplification [14]
Egg, Adult and metacercaria Stool Human Nad1 EU443831, DQ882172, DQ882174, EU443833, EU443832, DQ882175, GQ401025, GQ401064, GQ401046, GQ401060, GQ401082, GQ401096, EU022343, EU022346, EU022348, EU022350 1 pg to 100 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [62]
Metacercaria and metacercarial cyst Muscle Fish 100%
Egg Stool Human 100%
Adult Bile duct Hamster OvMS6 DQ144069 1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [14]
Amphimerus spp. Adult Liver Cats and dogs ITS-2 AB678442.1 1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [64]
  Egg Stool Human  
P. westermani Metacercaria Muscle Freshwater crab and crayfish ITS-2 AF159604 0.01 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [15]
1 metacercaria/gram
Egg Sputum and pleural fluid Human 100%
S. japonicum Adult, egg, cercaria Liver homogenate, stool and serum Rabbit SjR2 AF412221 0.08 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [16]
SjR2 AY027869
Serum Rabbit positive from 1 week p.i. with 500 cercariae
Adult 100 fg of DNA/rxn Cross reaction with Sch. mansoni; no template-free amplification [69]
Serum Rabbit positive from 1 week p.i. with 200 cercariae
Serum Rabbit SjR2 AF412221 positive from 3 days p.i. with 30 cercariae [70]
Miracidium Tissue Snail 28S rDNA Z46504 100 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [68]
Miracidium Tissue Snail positive from 1 day p.i with 1 miracidium
1 infected snail in 100 non-infected snails
Miracidium Tissue Snail 100 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [27]
S. mansoni Adult Mouse Sm1–7 M36086 0.1 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [71]
Miracidium Tissue Snail positive from 1 day p.i. with 10 miracidia
Miracidium Tissue Snail positive from 1 day p.i. with 1 miracidium [72]
Plasma/Serum Mouse 0.5 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [74]
positive from 1 week p.i. with 200 cercariae
Adult Minisatellite DNA region L27240 1 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [73]
Stool Mouse positive from 1 week p.i. with 200 cercariae. 100%
Adult IGS AJ223842 0.1 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [75]
Miracidium Tissue Snail positive from 1 day p.i. with 1 miracidium 100%
Miracidium Tissue Snail SmITS L27240.1, AY446082.1, M63265.1, AF130787.1 70 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [13]
Miracidium Tissue Snail 1 infected snail in 1000 non-infected snails 100%
S. haematobium Adult DraI 0.1 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [71]
Miracidium Tissue Snail positive from 1 day p.i. with 5 miracidia 100%
Miracidium Tissue Snail positive from 1 day p.i. with 1 miracidium 100% [72]
Adult 18S–28S rDNA AJ223838 100 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [76]
Egg Urine Human 25 fg of DNA/rxn 100%
Nematodes
A. lumbricoides Egg and adult Stool Human ITS-1 AJ000895 10.8 ng of DNA/rxn 100% [17]
Adult Stool Human β-tubulin isotype 1 gene EU814697 1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [79]
N. americanus Egg Stool Human ITS-2 KC896820.1-KC 896825.1,
Y11734,
AF217891,
HQ452515,
HQ455217,
HQ452537-HQ452543, AJ001599
0.4 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [78]
Adult, larva and egg Stool Human β-tubulin isotype 1 gene EF392851 1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [79]
T. trichiura Adult β-tubulin isotype 1 gene AF034219 1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [79]
W. bancrofti Microfilaria Blood Human WbLDR AY297458 0.001 microfilariae/rxn 100% [87]
0.00002 microfilaria /rxn 100% [86]
Brugian spp. Hha I M12691,
AAQA01025653, AAQA01026145, AAQA01018878, AAQA01011954, AAQA01021048,
AAQA01005386, AAQA01005790, AAQA01007277, AAQA01004714, AAQA01005124,
1.0 pg of DNA/rxn Tested positive for both B.malayi and B. timori [88]
Microfilaria Blood Feline 0.005 microfilariae/rxn
B. malayi 1.0 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [86]
O. volvulus Adult Skin nodule Human OvGST1a AF265556.1 0.01 ng of DNA/rxn 100% [83]
   Black fiy 0.01 ng of DNA/200 insects
0.01 ng of DNA/rxn 100% [86]
Microfilaria Skin snip Human O-150 J04659 0.1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [84]
   Cox1 NC_001861.1 100 DNA copies/rxn Cross reaction with Ohch. ochengi [85]
Loa loa Microfilaria Blood Human LLMF72 HM753552.1 0.2 fg of DNA/rxn 93.00% [89]
LLMF342 ADBU02000498.1 0.02 pg of DNA/rxn (qPCR as gold standard)
Adult Eyes and Blood Human LL3M9 M34259.1 0.5 ag of DNA/rxn 100% [90]
RF4 JPEI01001237.1 JPEI01001554.1 JPEI01001218.1
JPEI01001588.1
JPEI01001706.1
0.126 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [91]
Blood Human 1.6 pg of DNA/rxn Positive in only 1 of 12 NTCs
D. repens Larva Blood Dog COI gene AJ271614,
AM749230-
AM749234,
DQ358814,
JF461458,
KF692102
0.15 fg of DNA/rxn by real time-LAMP, and 10 fg of DNA/rxn by PI-LAMP 100% [92]
S. Stercoralis(S. ratti or S. venezuelensis as laboratory model) Infective third stage larva Stool Human 28S rRNA gene DQ14570.1 < 10 copies of DNA/rxn
< 0.01 of a larva/rxn
100% [52]
Infective third stage larva Stool Wistar rats 18S rRNA gene AJ417026.1 Positive from 6 days p.i. with 40 iL3, from 5 days p.i. with 400 iL3 or 4000 iL3 100% [82]
urine Positive from 6 days p.i. with 40 iL3, from 3 days p.i. with 400 iL3 or 4000 iL3 100%
A. cantonensis The first stage larva Lung snail 18S rRNA gene AY295804.1 1 fg of DNA/rxn 100% [93]
The third stage larva Tissue snail ITS-1 GU587760.1 0.32 larvae/0.1 g of snail tissue [94]
Adult Tissue snail 0.01 ng of DNA/rxn 100%
T. spiralis Larva Muscle Mice Repetitive DNA X06625 0.724 fg of DNA/rxn Cross reaction with positive controls, including Tri. nativa, Tri. pseudospiralis and Tri. nelsoni, no cross reaction with heterologous species, no template-free amplification [95]
0.002 larvae/rxn
0.01 larvae/g of muscle tissue
mt-lsrDNA GU339148.1 0.1 pg/rxn 100% [96]
T. canis Egg ITS-2 AJ002440, 0.1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [81]
Egg Sand 3 eggs/10 g of sand  
Adult Stool Dog 0.1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [80]
3 eggs/30 g of stools
T. catti Egg Sand ITS-2 AJ002441 0.1 pg/rxn 100% [81]
B. xylophilus ITS AB500146- AB500156
(accessed in DDBJ)
10 copies of DNA/rxn 100% [97]
Wood 2.5 × 10^(−5) of a nematode/rxn
H. contortus Egg Stool Sheep ITS-1 5 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [98]
Adult Goat ITS-2 X78803.1 1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [99]
Cestodes
T. solium Proglottid and cysticercus Cyst fluid Mouse Cox1 AB086256 100% [100]
Proglottid and cysticercus Cyst fluid Mouse Clp AB441815 1 copy of DNA/rxn 100%
T. saginata Proglottid and cysticercus Cyst fluid Mouse Cox1 AY684274 100% [100]
Egg Stool Human 5 EPG 100%
Proglottid and cysticercus Cyst fluid Mouse Clp AB441816 1 copy of DNA/rxn 100%
Egg Stool Human more than 10 EPG 97.4%(confirmed by multiplex PCR with Cox1 genes)  
T. asiatica Proglottid and cysticercus Cyst fluid Mouse Cox1 AF445798 100% [100]
Egg Stool Human 5 EPG 100%
E. granulosus Protoscolex Liver Sheep Repeat region sequence DQ157697 100 fg DNA/200 μl 100% [105]
Egg Stool Dog 1 pg/200 mg feces
5 EPG
Egg Stool Dog Nad5 AF297617 1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [106]
Egg Stool Dog positive from 22 days p.i. with 10 000 protoscoleces
Egg and larva Stool Dog 10 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [104]
E. granulosus sensu stricto Protoscolex Nad1 AF297617 1/10 or 1/50 of one proscolex E. granulosus G1, E. granulosus G3 positive; [108]
100%
E. equinus Protoscolex Nad1 AF346403 1/10 or 1/50 of one proscolex 100% [108]
E. Canadensis Protoscolex Nad1 AB208063 1/10 or 1/50 of one proscolex E. Canadensis G6, E. Canadensis G7, E. Canadensis G8, E. Canadensis G10 positive; [108]
100%
E. felidi Egg Nad1 EF558357 1/10 and 1/50 egg 100% [105]
E. ortleppi Protoscolex Nad1 AB235846 1/10 or 1/50 of one proscolex 100% [105]
Protoscolex and associated germinal layer Hydatid cyst Camel and human Nad1 JN637177 10 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [109]
E. multilocularis Protoscolex Multilocular cystic masses Mouse Nad5 AB031351 1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [107]
Egg Stool Dog positive from 12 days p.i. with 10 000 protoscoleces 100%
Larva Human Cox1 AB46141 1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [104]
Egg Stool Dog 5 egg of DNA extraction 100%
E. shiquicus Adult Fox Cox1 JF90613 10 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [104]
T. hydatigena Adult Fox Cox1 JN83129 10 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [104]
Egg Stool Dog 1 egg of DNA extraction 100%
T. multiceps Larva Sheep Nad1 KC79480 1 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [104]
Egg Stool Dog 2 egg of DNA extraction 100%
T. crassiceps Larvae Gerbil Cox1 EU54454 10 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [104]
T. pisiofmi Adult Dog Cox1 JX67796 10 pg of DNA/rxn 100% [104]
  1. ITS-1 Internal transcribed spacer 1, ITS-2 Internal transcribed spacer 2, IGS Intergenic spacer, Cox1 Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, Clp cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidase, Nad 1 The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (Nad1) gene, Nad 5 The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (Nad5) gene, OvMS6 Opisthorchis viverrini microsatellite 6, SjR2 Schistosoma japonicum retrotransposon 2, p.i Post-infection, EPG Egg per gram of feces-: unavailable, Mt The mitochondrial Nad5 gene, WbLDR W. bancrofti Long DNA repeat, OvGST Onchocerca volvulus glutathione S-transferase, RF4 Repeat family 4, NTC Non-template Control, Mt-lsrDNA The mitochondrial-large subunit ribosomal DNA