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Fig. 2 | Infectious Diseases of Poverty

Fig. 2

From: Vector-borne disease and climate change adaptation in African dryland social-ecological systems

Fig. 2

The adaptive cycle showing how changes in social-ecological systems characteristically exhibit two phases. Following collapse, a system can repeat the cycle (the white path) or transform into another system of different structure and function (the black path). A resilient system—i.e., one less vulnerable to unexpected shifts or collapses with undesirable or even catastrophic consequence for human populations—may successfully navigate itself through each of the phases and into new regime that satisfies societal goals. That is, it need not return via the α → r transition as before a crisis, thus repeat the cycle. In general, however, successful navigation (an indication of resilience) suggests the capacity to recognize barriers, critical thresholds and principles associated with this front loop that can trap a system—resulting in a pathology. System features allowing escape from these traps have been provisionally described [78]—representing adaptive management

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