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Table 1 Key characteristics of included studies on Schistosoma mansoni infections in nonhuman primates in Africa

From: Assessing the nonhuman primate reservoir of Schistosoma mansoni in Africa: a systematic review

Year Site Host species Study type Diagnostic technique % (infected/ examined) Reference
1960 Kenya: Athi & Kibwezi Rivers Papio anubis Wild Necropsy 23.88 (32/134) Miller [24]
1960 Kenya:Machakos District and Lake Albert Papio anubis Wild Necropsy 54.69 (35/64) Nelson [25]
1961 Kenya Papio anubis Wild Necropsy 28.00 (42/150) Strong et al. [26]
1969 Tanzania: Lake Manyara National Park Papio anubis Wild Necropsy 80.00 (4/5) Fenwick [27]
1970 Eritrea: Asmara Cercopithecus aethiops Wild FECT 33.33 (6/18) Cheever [28]
1970 Tanzania: Lake Victoria Cercopithecus aethiops Wild FECT 23.40 (11/47) Cheever [28]
1972 Tanzania Papio spp. Wild Necropsy 16.67 (2/12) Taylor et al. [29]
1974 Zimbabwe Papio ursinus Wild Necropsy 1.96 (1/51) Goldsmid [30]
1979 Ethiopia: Omo National Park Cercopithecus aethiops
Papio anubis
Wild Necropsy CA: 66.67 (2/3)
PA: 50.00 (3/6)
Fuller et al. [31]
1982 Kenya: Rift Valley, Lake Naivasha Cercopithecus aethiops Wild Kato-Katz 20.00 (8/40) Else et al. [32]
1989 Senegal: Mt. Assirik Papio papio Wild FECT 23.01 (9/39) McGrew et al. [33]
1992 Kenya: Kibwezi, Kivungoni Lake Papio anubis Wild FECT 24.43 (32/131) Muchemi [34]
1997 Tanzania: Gombe National Park Papio cynocephalus Wild FECT 18.93 (39/206) Muller-Graf et al. [35]
1998 Kenya: Nairobi Papio cynocephalus Wild Kato-Katz 4.35 (4/92) Munene et al. [36]
1998 Kenya: Nairobi Papio cynocephalus
Cercopithecus aethiops
Wild FECT PC: 3.60 (4/111)
CA: 4.88 (6/123)
Muriuki et al. [37]
1999 Tanzania: Gombe National Park Papio cynocephalus Wild ZSF 2.86 (1/35) Murray et al. [38]
2001 Ethiopia: Bishan Gari; Ethiopia: Burka Dita Papio anubis Wild Kato-Katz BG: 26.15 (34/130)
BD: 12.09 (11/91)
Erko et al. [39]
2003 Kenya: Mpala Wildlife Research Centre Papio cynocephalus Wild FECT 2.38 (1/42) Hahn et al. [40]
2004 Ethiopia: Bishan Gari; Ethiopia: Burka Dita Papio anubis Wild FECT BG: 33.33 (8/24)
BD: 11.43 (4/35)
Legesse et al. [41]
2006 Nigeria: Calabar, Afi Mountain Primate Conservation Area Papio anubis Wild FECT 4.35 (1/23) Weyher et al. [42]
2011 Senegal: Fongoli Papio hamadryas Wild SNF & FECT 23.53 (4/17) Howells et al. [43]
2011 Nigeria: Calabar, Afi Mountain Primate Conservation Area Pan troglodytes Semi-captive MMT & MBT 35.71 (10/28) Mbaya & Udendeye [44]
2011 Cameroon: Yaounde Erythrocebus patas Captive FECT 33.33 (1/3) Pourrut et al. [45]
2011 Uganda: Lake Victoria, Ngamba Island Pan troglodytes Wild ELISA, CCA, Kato-Katz, qPCR 89.74 (35/39) Standley et al. [46]
2012 Tanzania: Gombe National Park Papio anubis Wild/ habituated FECT 11.90 (15/126) Bakuza [47]
2013 Nigeria: Yankari National Park Papio anubis Wild FECT 4.30 (2/46) Mafuyai et al. [48]
2016 Gabon: Loango National Park Gorilla gorilla
Pan troglodytes
Wild MSF, MIF GG: 62.50 (5/8)
PT: 25.00 (2/8)
Cervena et al. [49]
2017 Kenya: Tsavo West National Park Papio anubis. Semi- captive FECT 2.13 (1/47) Chimoyi [50]
2018 Ethiopia: Oromia Regional State Cercopithecus aethiops
Papio anubis
Wild Kato-Katz CA: 21.60 (8/37)
PA: 50.72 (35/69)
Kebede et al. [51]
  1. Necropsy: Autopsy; FECT Formal-Ether Concentration Technique, Kato-Katz Kato-Katz thick smear, ZSF Zinc Sulfate Flotation, SNF Sodium Nitrate Flotation, ELISA Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, CCA Circulating Cathodic Antigen Test, qPCR Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, MSF Modified Sheather’s Flotation, MIF Merthiolate-Iodine-Formalin Fecal Technique, MMT Modified McMaster Technique, MBT Modified Baerman’s TechniqueIf studies did not include a specific site, only the country is provided in this table