Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Phenomena of “infection against infection”

From: Infection against infection: parasite antagonism against parasites, viruses and bacteria

Categories Interspecies antagonism Patterns of antagonism Intensity of antagonism References
Between Parasites and parasites Heterorhabditis baujardi against Fasciola hepaticac; Inhibiting transmission 66.66% [12]
H. baujardi against F. giganticac; Inhibiting transmission 66.66% [12]
Angiostrongylus cantonensis against Schistosoma mansonic; Inhibiting transmission 12.45% [13]
Trichinella spiralis against Plasmodium bergheic; Decreasing parasitaemia 47.50% [15]
Ascaris lumbricoides against P. falciparuma,d; Attenuating symptoms 24.00% [16]
Trichuris trichiura against Attenuating symptoms 27.50% [17]
P. falciparum d Decreasing parasitaemia 28.00% [18, 19]
S. haematobium against P. falciparuma Attenuating symptoms 76.00% [20]
S. mansoni against P. knowlesi; Inhibiting propagation 88.82% [21]
S. mansoni against P. yoeliia; Inhibiting propagation 31.70% [22]
Litomosoides sigmodontis against P. berghei; Inhibiting propagation 22.00% [23]
Trichostrongylus colubriformis against Haemonchus contortus; Decreasing parasitaemia 74.07% [24]
Babesia microti against P. cynomolgi    
Between Parasites and bacteria Enterobacter amnigenus against P. vivax c; Inhibiting transmission 94.37% [25]
Enterobacter cloacae against P. vivax c; Inhibiting transmission 83.10% [25]
Serratia marcescens against P. vivax c; Inhibiting transmission 98.59% [25]
Ewingella americana against P. falciparum c; Inhibiting transmission 38.00% [26]
Salmonella typhimurium against Schistosoma; Decreasing parasitaemia and attenuating symptoms 56.82%, [27]
Giardia muris against Citrobacter rodentium; Inhibiting propagation 42.86% [28]
Wolbachia (wMelPop strain) against P. falciparum c; Decreasing parasitaemia 46.78% [29]
Wolbachia (wMelPop strain) against P. berghei c; Decreasing parasitaemia 33.00% [11]
Wolbachia (wMelPo strain) against P. gallinaceum c Inhibiting propagation 79.50% [30]
   80.00%  
Between Parasites and Viruses Plasmodium against chikungunya virus; Attenuating symptoms 39.50% [31, 32]
Heligmosomoides polygyrus against respiratory syncytial virus; Attenuating symptoms 42.06% [33]
Echinoparyphium against ranavirus Decreasing viral loads 23.50% [34]
  1. aContradictory results
  2. bAntagonism between different strains of P. berghei
  3. cLaboratory conditions
  4. dConditions in human population