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Table 6 Bivariate and multivariate analysis of soil-transmitted helminthiases in relation to selected factors among preschool aged children

From: Prevalence and risk factors of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases among preschool aged children (1–5 years) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a cross-sectional study

Variable   Soil-transmitted helminths infection Chi-square test Multivariate logistic regression
   Positive Negative Total (n = 442) P-value aOR (95% CI)
Children’s gender Male 75 158 233 0.070
Female 51 158 209   
Children’s age 1-year-old 7 14 21 0.972
2-year-old 11 27 38   
3-year-old 20 57 77   
4-year-old 37 90 127   
5-year-old 51 128 179   
Care givers’ educational status No formal education 21 44 65 0.014 2.05 (0.21–20.01)
Primary school 20 83 103   4.16 (0.49–35.63)
Secondary school 84 174 258   1.69 (0.18–15.67)
College level 1 15 16   1
Caregivers’ occupational status Not working 105 356 372 0.891
Self employed 11 38 39   
Employed 10 29 31   
Caregivers’ age group 15–24 years 25 80 105 0.001 0.28 (0.09–0.85) b
25–34 years 37 137 174   0.27 (0.10–0.75) b
35–44 years 30 55 85   0.53 (0.19–1.47)
45–54 years 15 29 44   0.63 (0.21–1.95)
>  55 years 19 15 34   1
Do you have a toilet at home Yes 121 312 433 0.069
No 5 4 9   
Main source of domestic household water Tap water 68 227 295 0.006 0.47 (0.27–0.80) b
Open source water 58 89 147   1
How often do you wash your hands after visiting the toilet Never 28 36 64 0.017 4.45 (0.20–1.14)
Sometimes 77 185 262   3.52 (0.04–5.43)
Regularly 11 43 54   1.85 (0.10–0.58) a
All the time 10 52 62   1
How often do you trim your child’s finger nails Never 59 86 145 0.001 3.56 (1.75–7.26) b
Sometimes 33 73 106   2.48 (1.15–5.33) a
Regularly 16 68 84   1.23 (0.50–5.33)
All the time 18 89 107   1
How often do you use soap and water when washing hands Never 9 25 34 0.722
Sometimes 39 87 126   
Regularly 12 41 53   
All the time 66 162 228   
What does your child normally use to wash hands Water only 108 274 382 0.783
Soap and water 18 42 60   
How often does your child wash his or her hands using soap and water Never 67 124 191 0.005 3.49 (1.04–11.67) b
Sometimes 46 115 161   4.22 (1.23–14.53) b
Regularly 9 50 59   1.67 (0.40–7.10)
All the time 4 27 31   1
How often does your child play with soil Never 11 92 103 0.001 0.12 (0.51–0.28) a
Sometimes 24 73 97   0.44 (0.21–0.92) a
Regularly 47 100 147   0.43 (0.23–0.82) a
All the time 44 51 95   1
How often does your child bite his or her nails Never 2 13 15 0.056
Sometimes 32 114 146   
Regularly 36 68 104   
All the time 56 121 177   
How do you treat water meant for drinking Boiling 23 50 73 0.711
Filtration 2 8 10   
Use chemicals 7 25 32   
Nothing 94 233 327   
  1. a aOR P-value < 0.05; b aOR P-value < 0.01