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Table 1 The services for each of key populations, as listed in WHO guidelines [5]

From: Are monitoring and evaluation systems adequate to report the programmatic coverage of HIV services among key populations in countries?

Key population groups Essential health sector intervention Essential strategies for an enabling environment Specific considerations
Sex workers • Comprehensive condom and lubricant programming
• Harm reduction interventions for substance use, in particular needle and syringe programs (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST)
• Behavioral interventions
• HIV testing and counselling
• HIV treatment and care
• Prevention and management of co-infections and other comorbidities, including viral hepatitis, TB and mental health conditions
• Sexual and reproductive health interventions
• Supportive legislation, policy and financial commitment, including decriminalization of behaviors of key populations
• Addressing stigma and discrimination
• Community empowerment
• Addressing violence against people from key populations.
• Correct and consistent use of condoms and condom-compatible lubricants is recommended for sex workers and their clients
• Female condoms for female sex workers (FSW), particularly FSW who inject drugs, for power imbalance during condom negotiation
Men who have sex with men • Condoms and condom-compatible lubricants are recommended for anal sex
• Adequate provision of lubricants needs to be emphasized
People who inject drugs • Immediate implementation of NSP and OST
• Condom programming is an essential component of the comprehensive harm reduction package for people who inject drugs and their sexual partners
Transgender people • Condoms and condom-compatible lubricants are recommended for anal sex
• Adequate provision of lubricants for transgender women and transgender men who have sex with men needs emphasis
People in prisons and other closed settings • Prevention of HIV transmission through medical and dental services
• Prevention of transmission of HIV and other bloodborne diseases through tattooing, piercing and other forms of skin penetration
• Protecting staff from occupational hazards
• Condom and lubricant distribution programs in prisons and other closed settings, without quantity restriction, with anonymity and in an easily accessible manner