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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors associated with HBV infection among children born to HBsAg-positive mothers in four provinces, China 2016–2017

From: Outcomes of the national programme on prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus in China, 2016–2017

Characteristics Number of observations HBsAg Positive Univariate analysis Multivariable analysis
N(%) OR(95% CI) P-value aOR(95% CI) P-value
Maternal age (years)
 18–24 280 3(1.1) 2.3 (0.5–10.2) 0.2#   
 25–34 2992 28(0.9) 2.0 (0.7–5.6)    
 35–45 840 4(0.5) 1    
Maternal educational level
 Junior middle school and below 1382 12(0.9) 1.0 (0.5–2.1) 0.9   
 High middle school and above 2730 23(0.8) 1    
Maternal residence rural / urban
 Rural 2818 28(1.0) 1.8 (0.8–4.2) 0.1   
 Urban 1294 7(0.5) 1    
Maternal parity
 1 1732 18(1.0) 1.5 (0.8–2.8) 1.3   
  > 1 2380 17(0.7) 1    
Maternal HBeAg status during this pregnancy
 Positive 1221 33(2.7) 76.1 (10.4–556.9) <  0.001# 79.1 (10.8–580.2) <  0.001
 Negative 2740 1(0.04) 1   1  
 Unknown 151 1(0.7) 18.3 (1.1–293.4)   16.7 (1.0–269.6) 0.05
Maternal antiviral treatment during this pregnancy
 Yes 392 1(0.3) 0.3 (0.0–2.0) 0.25*   
 No 3720 34(0.9) 1    
Level of delivery hospital
 County level and below 2594 29(1.1) 2.8 (1.2–6.9) 0.02 3.3 (1.3–8.0) 0.01
 Prefectural and above 1518 6(0.4) 1   1  
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal delivery 2349 23(1.0) 1.4 (0.72–2.9) 0.3   
 Caesarean section 1763 12(0.7) 1    
Child gender
 Male 2185 17(0.8) 0.8 (0.4–1.6) 0.6   
 Female 1927 18(0.9) 1    
Gestational age (weeks)
  < 37 236 3(1.3) 1.5 (0.5–5.1) 0.5*   
 37–43 3876 32(0.8)     
Child birth weight (g)
  < 2500 (LBW) 131 3(2.3) 2.9 (0.9–9.6) 0.09* 2.7 (0.8–9.7) 0.1
 2500–5400 3981 32(0.8) 1   1  
Type of HBvacc–BD
 10 μg yeast vaccine 3637 29(0.8) 0.8 (0.2–3.2) 0.5   
 20 μg CHO vaccine 285 4(1.4) 1.3 (0.2–7.4)    
 10 μg CHO vaccine 190 2(1.1) 1    
Interval between birth and HBvac-BD (hours)
 Within 12 3579 23(0.6) 1 0.001# 1  
 12–24 466 11(2.4) 3.7 (1.8–7.7)   2.9 (1.4–6.3) 0.01
  > 24 67 1(1.5) 2.4 (0.3–17.6)   2.1 (0.3–17.7) 0.5
Administered HBIG
 Yes 4092 35(0.9) 0.99 (0.98–0.99) 1.0*   
 No 20 0(0.0) 1    
Interval between 3rd dose HBvacc and HBV serological marker test (months)
  < 7 1666 12(0.7) 0.8 (0.4–1.5) 0.5   
 7–18 2446 23(0.9) 1    
  1. HBV hepatitis B virus, HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen, HBeAg HBV e antigen, HBvacc hepatitis B vaccine, HBvacc-BD hepatitis B vaccine birth dose, HBIG hepatitis B immunoglobulin, LBW low birth weight, CHO Chinese hamster ovary, #: trend, *: Fisher’s exact test, OR odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio, factors significant at P <  0.1 in univariate analysis entered into the regression model)