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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 1341 children enrolled in the efficacy study

From: Declining responsiveness of childhood Plasmodium falciparum infections to artemisinin-based combination treatments ten years following deployment as first-line antimalarials in Nigeria

Variables All treatments P value Artemether-lumefantrine P value Artesunate-amodiaquine P value
2009–2010 (n = 743) 2014–2015 (n = 598) All (n = 1341) 2009–2010 (n = 360) 2014–2015 (n = 303) 2009–2010 (n = 383) 2014–2015 (n = 295)
MaleFemale 414329 312286 726615 0.22 201159 159144 0.43 213170 153142 0.39
Age (month)
 Mean 36.3 39.8 37.8 <  0.0001 36 40.5 0.001 36.5 39 0.04
 95% CI 35.1–37.4 38.4–41.1 37–38.7   34.2–37.8 38.6–42.3   35–38.1 37.2–40.9  
 Number ≤ 24 months (%) 237 (31.9) 141 (23.6) 378 (28.2) 0.001 123 (34.2) 68 (22.4) 0.001 114 (29.8) 73 (24.7) 0.18
Weight (kg)
 Mean 13.3 13.5 13.4 0.56 13.2 13.5 0.34 13.5 13.4 0.89
 95% CI 13–13.6 13.1–14 13.2–13.6   12.7–13.7 13–14   13.1–13.9 13–14  
Temperature (°C)
 Mean 38 37.8 37.9 0.005 38 37.9 0.12 38 37.8 0.02
 95% CI 37.9–38.1 37.7–37.9 37.9–38   37.9–38.1 37.8–38   37.9–38 37.6–37.9  
 Number with
   ≥ 37.5 °C (%) 556 (74.8) 377 (64) 933 (69.6) <  0.0001 267 (74.2) 195 (64.4) 0.008 289 (75.5) 182 (64.4) <  0.0001
   ≥ 40 °C (%) 25 (3.4) 53 (8.9) 78 (5.8) <  0.0001 13 (3.6) 22 (7.3) 0.06 12 (3.1) 31 (7.3) <  0.0001
Haematocrit (%)
 Mean 29.8 30.4 30.1 0.04 29.7 30.3 0.11 29.9 30.5 0.17
 95% CI 29.4–30.2 30–30.8 29.8–30.4   29.1–30.2 30–30.8   29.4–30.5 29.9–31.1  
 Number with anaemia (%) 294 (39.6) 233 (39) 527 (39.3) 0.15 142 (39.4) 120(39.6) 0.43 152 (39.7) 113 (39.6) 0.24
  (i) Mild (%) 258 (34.7) 216 (36.1) 474 (35.3) 0.64 124 (34.4) 110 (36.3) 0.68 134 (35) 106 (36.3) 0.84
  (ii) Moderate (%) 34 (4.6) 16 (2.7) 50 (3.7) 0.09 18 (5) 10 (3.3) 0.37 16 (4.2) 6 (3.3) 0.18
  (iii) Severe (%) 2 (0.3) 1 (0.2) 3 (0.2) 1.0 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (0.5) 1 (0) 1.0
Parasitaemia (μl−1)
 Geometric mean 14 733 15 887 15 237 0.4 15 169 16 250 0.65 14 337 15 519 0.48
 95% CI 13 108–16 239 14 211–17 760 14 050–16 403   12 993–17 710 13 938–18   12 201–16 413 13 200–18 244  
  > 100 000 μl− 1 (%) 71 (9.6) 60 (10) 131 (9.8) 0.83 37 (10.3) 956 30 (9.9) 0.95 34 (8.9) 30 (10.2) 0.65
 Gametocytaemia (%) 159 (21.4) 29 (4.8) 188 (14) <  0.0001 82 (22.8) 9 (3) <  0.0001 77 (20.1) 20 (6.8) <  0.0001