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Table 4 Predictors of residual asexual parasitaemia 2 days post-initiation of artemisinin-based combination treatments in acutely malarious children

From: Declining responsiveness of childhood Plasmodium falciparum infections to artemisinin-based combination treatments ten years following deployment as first-line antimalarials in Nigeria

Variable Total number Number with APPD2 OR (95% CI) P value aOR (95% CI) P value
Gender
 Female 615 92 1    
 Male 726 99 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.54
Age [month]
  > 24 963 138 1    
  ≤ 24 378 53 1.0 (0.7–1.4) 0.95
Temperature at presentation (°C)
  ≤ 40 1263 172 1    
  > 40 78 19 2.0 (1.2–3.5) 0.01 1.0 (0.5–1.9) 0.97
Fever on day 1
 Absent 1189 152 1    
 Present 132 32 2.2 (1.4–3.4) 0.001 1.8 (1.1–3.2) 0.03
Haematocrit at presentation (%)
  < 30 728 115 1    
  ≥ 30 526 65 0.8 (0.5–1.0) 0.1
Haematocrit on day 1 (%)
  ≤ 29 405 58 1   1  
  > 29 510 102 1.5 (1.1–2.1) 0.01 1.7 (1.1–2.5) 0.01
Enrolment Parasitaemia (μl−1)
  ≤ 100 000 1211 162 1   1  
  > 100 000 130 29 1.9 (1.2–2.9) 0.008 1.4 (0.8–2.5) 0.22
Parasitaemia on day 1
 Absent 573 19 1   1  
 Present 768 172 8.4 (5.2–13.7) <  0.0001 9.3 (5.2–16.6) <  0.0001
Gametocytaemia
 Present 188 13 1    
 Absent 1029 178 2.8 (1.6–5.1) <  0.0001 1.4 (0.5–3.5) 0.53
Drug treatment
 AA 678 87 1    
 AL 663 104 1.3 (0.9–1.7) 0.16
Period of enrolment
 2009–2010 743 38 1    
 2014–2015 598 153 6.4 (4.4–9.3) <  0.0001 3.0 (1.7–5.1) <  0.0001
  1. APPD2 Asexual parasite positivity 2 days post-treatment initiation, OR Odd ratio, aOR Adjusted odd ratio, CI Confidence interval, AL Artemether-lumefantrine, AA Artesunate-amodiaquine