Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 5 Baseline characteristics and treatment responses of 360 children enrolled in the parasitaemia elimination half-life study

From: Declining responsiveness of childhood Plasmodium falciparum infections to artemisinin-based combination treatments ten years following deployment as first-line antimalarials in Nigeria

Variables 2009–2010 (n = 254) 2012–2015 (n = 106) All (n = 360) P value
Baseline characteristics
 MaleFemale 141113 5353 194166 0.4
 Age (month)
  Mean 7.3 7.5 7.4 0.64
  95% CI 6.9–7.7 6.8–8.1 7.0–7.7  
  Number 5 years (%) 54 (21.3) 22 (20.8) 76 (21.1) 1.0
 Temperature (°C)
  Mean 38.4 38 38.3 0.009
  95% CI 38.2–38.5 37.8–38.3 38.2–38.4  
 No. with
   ≥ 37.5 °C (%)* 196 (77.2) 67 (23.6) 263 (73.1) 0.01
   ≥ 40 °C (%) 26 (10.2) 4 (3.8) 30 (8.3) 0.06
 Haematocrit (%)
  Mean 32.1 32.1 32.1 0.98
  95% CI 31.6–32.6 32.1–33.0 31.7–32.6  
  No with anaemia (%) 60 (23.6) 25 (23.6) 85 (23.6) 1.0
 Parasitaemia (μl−1)
  Geometric mean 71 393 41 404 60 811 <  0.0001
  Range 1800–1 096 636 2220–454 875 1800–1 096 636  
   > 100 000 μl− 1 (%) 165 (65) 83 (78.3) 248 (68.9) 0.02
 Gametocytaemia (%) 7 (2.8) 2 (1.9) 9 (2.5) 1.0
Treatment responses
 Fever clearance time (day)
  Mean (95% CI) 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 1.1 (1.05–1.13) 0.26
 Parasite clearance time (day)
  Mean (95% CI) 1.1 (1.1–1.2) 1.4 (1.3–1.5) 1.2 (1.2–1.3) <  0.0001
   APPD1 (%) 28 (11) 37 (34.9) 65 (18.1) <  0.0001
   APPD2 (%) 4 (1.6) 2 (1.9) 6 (1.7) 1.0
   APPD3 (%) 3 (1.2) 0 (0) 3 (0.8) -
 Parasite reduction ratio 1 day
  Geometric mean 3.3 × 104 3.9 × 103 1.7 × 104 <  0.0001
  Range 2.7 × 100–1.1 × 106 8.0 × 10−1–2.4 × 105 8.0 × 10−1–1.1 × 106  
 Parasite reduction ratio 2 days
  Geometric mean 6.6 × 104 3.8 × 104 5.6 × 104 <  0.0001
  Range 1.6 × 101–1.1 × 106 1.8 × 103–3.6 × 105 1.6 × 101–1.1 × 106  
  1. APPD1 Asexual parasite positivity 1 day post-treatment initiation, APPD2 Asexual parasite positivity 2 days post-treatment initiation, APPD3 Asexual parasite positivity 3 days post-treatment initiation, CI Confidential interval