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Table 2 Rates of tuberculosis and mental illness symptom comorbidity

From: Comorbidities between tuberculosis and common mental disorders: a scoping review of epidemiological patterns and person-centred care interventions from low-to-middle income and BRICS countries

CitationCountryPopulation groupComorbidity rates
   DepressionAnxietyAlcohol useGeneral mental health
Aamir et al. 2010 [36]PakistanTB patients35.3% high depression/anxiety; 36.9% moderate depression/anxiety35.3% high depression/anxiety; 36.9% moderate depression/ anxiety
Kendall et al. 2013 [37]South AfricaMDR-TB patients63% recent use3% psychiatric comorbidity
Ugarte-Gil et al. 2013 [38]PeruTB patients37%
Ahmad et al. 2016 [39]PakistanMDR-TB patients76% (depression risk)
Xu et al. 2017 [40]ChinaTB patients63.1%v psychological distress70.3% psychological distress65.2% psychological distress
Theron et al. 2015 [41]South AfricaTB patients26% regular and heavy use22% psychological distress
Tola et al. 2017 [11]EthiopiaAll types of TB15% hazardous and harmful use48.9% risk for psychological distress
Laprawat et al. 2017 [42]ThailandTB patients24.4% hazardous and harmful use
Hussain et al. 2008 [43]PakistanTB patients46.3%47.2%
Singh et al. 2015 [44]IndiaTB patients12%5%4%24%
Chandrashekar et al. 2012 [45]IndiaTB patients46%
Srivastava et al. 2014 [46]IndiaTB patients84%2%
Duko et al. 2015 [47]EthiopiaTB patients43.4%41.5%40.6%
Mohammed et al. 2015 [48]SudanTB patients13.1% poor mental quality of health
Kehbila et al. 2016 [49]CameroonTB patients22.6%38.5%61.1% 
[50]KazakhstanTB patients10.3%
Koyanagi et al. 2017 [4]48 LMICsTB patients23.7%
Das et al. 2014 [51]IndiaMDR-TB HIV co-infected patients16%
Ambaw et al. 2017 [52]EthiopiaNewly diagnosed TB patients50.6%58.1%54%
Scuffell et al. 2017 [53]PeruXDR-TB patients10.2%6.1%20.4% current alcohol use
26.5% Past alcohol use
22.4% mental disorder
Vega et al. 2004 [54]PeruMDR-TB patients52.2%8.7%
Peltzer et al. 2012 [55]South AfricaPHC TB patients23.3% harmful/hazardous users33.9%32.2%32.9% psychological distress
Dos Santos et al. 2017 [56]BrazilHospitalised TB patients31.4%38.4%
Galhenage et al. 2016 [57]Sri LankaTB patients25.2% (inpatient)
8.5% (clinic)
12.6% (inpatient)
17.6% (clinic)
Ige & Lasebekan 2011 [58]NigeriaTB patients45.5% 
Van den Heuvel et al. 2013 [59]ZambiaTB-HIV co-infected patients9.3% major depressive disorder7.8% generalised anxiety
27.9% any anxiety
30.9% current suicidality
Zaridze et al. 2009 [60]RussiaAdults with heavy alcohol use2.4%a (TB cause of death)0.4%a (TB cause of death)
Augusto et al. 2013 [61]BrazilAdult TB patients15%
Deponti et al. 2013 [62]BrazilTertiary emergency department patients34.6%
Hermosilla et al. 2017 [63]KazakhstanAdult TB patients10.3%
Jankowska-Polanska et al. 2015 [64]PolandHospitalised TB patients31%7.9%
Lackey et al. 2015 [65]PeruAdult TB patients18.9%
Louw et al. 2016 [66]South AfricaPHC TB patients26.8%
Louw et al. 2012 [67]South AfricaPHC TB patients23.3%
Méda et al. 2014 [68]Burkina FasoPHC TB patients30.1%
Miller et al. 2016 [69]RussiaTB patients with alcohol use disorders10.6%25.7%13.3%18.8 (AUDIT)15.8 (AUDIT)18.3 (AUDIT)
O’Connell et al. 2013 [70]ZambiaPHC TB patients32.2%5.9%
Thapa et al. 2014 [71]IndiaPHC TB patients25%3.7%20.3%
Naidoo et al. 2013 [72]South AfricaPHC TB patients16.4% (medium risk)
5.6% (high risk)
25% (severe psychological distress)
Peltzer et al. 2014 [73]South AfricaPHC TB patients26.8%83.6% (psychological distress)
Peltzer et al. 2013 [74]South AfricaPHC TB patients23.3%81% (psychological distress)
Peltzer et al. 2012 [75]South AfricaPHC TB patients31.8%13.0%23.2%
Bumburidi et al. 2006 [76]KazakhstanTB patients4%
Fleming et al. 2006 [77]RussiaTB patients17% moderate depression
43% mild depression
62% alcohol abuse/dependence
Krupitsky et al. 2006 [78]RussiaPatients with substance use disorder53% diagnosed with TB
Gelmanova et al. 2007 [79]RussiaTB patients19.9% alcoholism at treatment initiation among non-defaulting MDR-TB patients
Jakubowiak et al. 2007 [80]RussiaTB patients24% abuse alcohol
47% of defaulters abuse alcohol
Kliiman & Altraja 2010 [81]EstoniaTB patients36.9% non-defaulters
67.3% defaulters
Duarte et al. 2009 [82]BrazilTB patients5.3% alcoholism (mortality risk)0.9% mental disorders (mortality risk)
Paulo & Peixoto 2016 [83, 84]AngolaTB patients42.5%57.5%49.4%38.3%41.2%58.8%44.4% psychological distress
De Araujo et al. 2014 [85]BrazilTB patients38.3% CMD
21.4% depressive /anxious mood
40.9% somatic symptoms
31.2% energy reduction
6.5% depressive thoughts
Ndishimye et al. 2017 [86]RomaniaTB patients56% past/current alcohol use
Van den Hof et al. 2013 [87]KazakhstanMDR-TB6%
Vijay et al. (2010) [88]IndiaNew TB patients under DOTS49.1% alcoholic
Priedeman et al. 2018 [89]UkraineTB patients25.9%
Shin et al. 2010 [90]RussiaTB patients70.6% (lifetime alcohol disorder)
33.3% (abuse)
37.2% (disorder)
28.3% (lifetime alcohol disorder)
15.2% (disorder)
Patel et al. (2016) [91]IndiaTB patients58%
Finlay et al. 2012 [92]South AfricaTB patients22.9% alcohol use new patients
31.3% alcohol use retreatment patients
Salles et al. 2004 [93]BrazilTB patients12.9% alcoholism
Suhadev et al. 2011 [94]IndiaTB patients29% consume alcohol
48% low risk
29% hazardous
7% harmful
16% alcohol dependence
Kolapan et al. 2007 [95]IndiaTB patients5% alcoholism
Santha et al. 2002 [96]IndiaTB patients25% alcoholism
Roy et al. 2015 [97]IndiaTB patients49.4% alcohol use among defaulted TB patients
  1. AUDIT Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, CMD Common mental disorder, DOTS Directly observed treatment short course, MDR-TB Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, PHC Primary health care, TB tuberculosis, XDR-TB Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis
  2. aCalculated from presented data