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Table 3 Summary of univariate analysis - Factors significantly associated with yaws (All cases and confirmed cases)

From: Factors associated with cutaneous ulcers among children in two yaws-endemic districts in Ghana

VariablesAll casesConfirmed cases
cOR (95% CI)P-valuecOR (95% CI)P-value
Socio-demographic factors
 Sex (Male)2.70 (1.38–5.26)0.0042.70 (1.12–6.49)0.027
 Ethnicity (Ga/Adangme)4.80 (1.23–18.63)0.023NS 
 Ethnicity (Ewes)4.95 (1.31–18.66)0.0189.68 (1.18–79.09)0.034
 Past treatment for yaws (Yes)2.7 (1.13–6.47)0.0253.48 (1.26–9.60)0.016
Behavioral factors
 Bath every day (No)2.76 (1.31–5.80)0.0084.50 (1.87–10.84)0.001
 Frequency of bathing/day (Once)1.98 (1.07–3.68)0.033.50 (1.49–8.21)0.004
 Sharing of towels/sponge (Yes)3.10 (1.40–6.97)0.0053.50 (1.17–10.94)0.025
 Bathroom (used by > 5 persons)2.57 (1.36–4.80)0.003NS 
 Contact with yaws (Yes)2.70 (1.42–5.11)0.0025.23 (2.26–12.09)<  0.0001
 Use of clothing (Not regularly)2.76 (1.15–6.59)0.022NS 
 Handwashing (Not regularly)4.98 (2.42–10.27)< 0.00014.10 (1.65–10.22)0.002
Environmental factors
 Type of housing (Compounda)2.91 (1.53–5.50)0.0014.74 (1.90–11.84)0.001
 Sleeping room occupancy (>  4 persons)3.31 (1.71–6.41)<  0.0014.5 (1.20–10.49)<  0.0001
 House occupancy (>  8 persons)6.78 (2.24–20.50)0.0016.22 (1.57–24.63)0.009
 Toilet facility (open defecation)2.70 (1.25–6.16)0.0123.70 (1.37–10.04)0.01
  1. cOR Crude odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, NS No statistical significance; a compound house – housing structure with multiple households (> 2) with shared facilities (cooking, bathing, toilets)