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Table 4 Psychological status of the public under the epidemic of COVID-19 in China

From: Psychological status and behavior changes of the public during the COVID-19 epidemic in China

VariableState anxiety Trait anxiety Depression Psychology abnormality b 
Total (n = 569) n (%)No (n = 479) n (%)Yes (n = 90) n (%)P valueTotal (n = 569) n (%)No (n = 546) n (%)Yes (n = 23) n (%)P valueTotal (n = 608) n (%)No (n = 443) n (%)Yes (n = 165) n (%)P valueTotal (n = 455) n (%)No (n = 420) n (%)Yes (n = 35) n (%)P value
GenderMale240 (42.2)211 (44.1)29 (32.2)0.037240 (42.2)235 (43.0)5 (21.7)0.043251 (41.3)183 (41.3)68 (41.2)0.983182 (40.0)171 (40.7)11 (31.4)0.281
Female329 (57.8)268 (56.0)61 (67.8)329 (57.8)311 (57.0)18 (78.3)357 (58.7)260 (58.7)97 (58.8)273 (60.0)249 (59.3)24 (68.6)
Age group (years)aBelow 18 (including 18)___0___034 (5.6)21 (4.7)13 (7.9)0.00624 (5.3)21 (5.0)3 (8.6)0.042
19–39321 (56.4)282 (58.9)39 (43.3)321 (56.4)316 (57.9)5 (21.7)321 (52.8)219 (49.4)102 (61.8)239 (52.5)213 (50.7)26 (74.3)
40–49149 (26.2)135 (28.2)14 (15.6)149 (26.2)148 (27.1)1 (4.4)149 (24.5)122 (27.5)27 (16.4)117 (25.7)113 (26.9)4 (11.4)
50–6999 (17.4)62 (12.9)37 (41.1)99 (17.4)82 (15.0)17 (73.9)99 (16.3)76 (17.2)23 (13.9)71 (15.6)69 (16.4)2 (5.7)
Above 70 (including 70)______5 (0.8)5 (1.1)0 (0.0)4 (0.9)4 (1.0)0 (0.0)
OccupationGovernment, enterprises and institutions136 (23.9)114 (23.8)22 (24.4)0.23136 (23.9)134 (24.5)2 (8.7)0.002136 (22.4)111 (25.1)25 (15.2)099 (21.8)96 (22.9)3 (8.6)0.181
Worker122 (21.4)109 (22.8)13 (14.4)122 (21.4)117 (21.4)5 (21.7)123 (20.2)90 (20.3)33 (20.0)96 (21.1)89 (21.2)7 (20.0)
Student84 (14.8)73 (15.2)11 (12.2)84 (14.8)83 (15.2)1 (4.4)118 (19.4)67 (15.1)51 (30.9)76 (16.7)67 (16.0)9 (25.7)
Businessman58 (10.2)49 (10.2)9 (10.0)58 (10.2)56 (10.3)2 (8.7)58 (9.5)44 (9.9)14 (8.5)50 (11.0)45 (10.7)5 (14.3)
Medical staff58 (10.2)48 (10.0)10 (11.1)58 (10.2)56 (10.3)2 (8.7)58 (9.5)42 (9.5)16 (9.7)46 (10.1)42 (10.0)4 (11.4)
Unemployed27 (4.8)19 (4.0)8 (8.9)27 (4.8)22 (4.0)5 (21.7)27 (4.4)17 (3.8)10 (6.1)24 (5.3)20 (4.8)4 (11.4)
Other84 (14.8)67 (14.0)17 (18.9)84 (14.8)78 (14.3)6 (26.1)88 (14.5)72 (16.3)16 (9.7)64 (14.1)61 (14.5)3 (8.6)
Education levelPrimary school degree2 (0.4)2 (0.4)0 (0.0)0.7772 (0.4)2 (0.4)0 (0.0)0.0275 (0.8)5 (1.1)0 (0.0)0.1734 (0.9)4 (1.0)0 (0.0)0.95
Junior high school degree37 (6.5)30 (6.3)7 (7.8)37 (6.5)34 (6.2)3 (13.0)54 (8.9)33 (7.5)21 (12.7)43 (9.5)40 (9.5)3 (8.6)
High school degree74 (13.0)60 (12.5)14 (15.6)74 (13.0)67 (12.3)7 (30.4)80 (13.2)61 (13.8)19 (11.5)68 (15.0)62 (14.8)6 (17.1)
College degree377 (66.3)318 (66.4)59 (65.6)377 (66.3)364 (66.7)13 (56.5)389 (64.0)287 (64.8)102 (61.8)290 (63.7)267 (63.6)23 (65.7)
Master or doctor degree79 (13.9)69 (14.4)10 (11.1)79 (13.9)79 (14.5)0 (0.0)80 (13.2)57 (12.9)23 (13.9)50 (11.0)47 (11.2)3 (8.6)
City or regionHubei province49 (8.6)38 (7.9)11 (12.2)0.13449 (8.6)43 (7.9)6 (26.1)0.00661 (10.0)41 (9.3)20 (12.1)0.29840 (8.8)39 (9.3)1 (2.9)0.178
Guangdong province245 (43.1)214 (44.7)31 (34.4)245 (43.1)235 (43.0)10 (43.5)264 (43.4)200 (45.2)64 (38.8)203 (44.6)190 (45.2)13 (37.1)
Other province or regions275 (48.3)227 (47.4)48 (53.3)275 (48.3)268 (49.1)7 (30.4)283 (46.6)202 (45.6)81 (49.1)212 (46.6)191 (45.5)21 (60.0)
History of epidemiological exposureYes54 (9.5)38 (7.9)16 (17.8)0.00354 (9.5)46 (8.4)8 (34.8)059 (9.7)38 (8.6)21 (12.7)0.12440 (8.8)40 (9.5)0 (0.0)0.109
No515 (90.5)441 (92.1)74 (82.2)515 (90.5)500 (91.6)15 (65.2)549 (90.3)405 (91.4)144 (87.3)415 (91.2)380 (90.5)35 (100.0)
Someone around you diagnosed as (suspected) epidemiological carrierYes17 (3.0)12 (2.5)5 (5.6)0.22217 (3.0)15 (2.8)2 (8.7)0.14719 (3.1)10 (2.3)9 (5.5)0.04412 (2.6)11 (2.6)1 (2.9)1
No552 (97.0)467 (97.5)85 (94.4)552 (97.0)531 (97.3)21 (91.3)589 (96.9)433 (97.7)156 (94.6)443 (97.4)409 (97.4)34 (97.1)
Someone around you who is a medical staff withstanding SARIYes271 (47.6)225 (47.0)46 (51.1)0.471271 (47.6)261 (47.8)10 (43.5)0.684281 (46.2)208 (47.0)73 (44.2)0.551219 (48.1)202 (48.1)17 (48.6)0.957
No298 (52.4)254 (53.0)44 (48.9)298 (52.4)285 (52.2)13 (56.5)327 (53.8)235 (53.1)92 (55.8)236 (51.9)218 (51.9)18 (51.4)
Knowledge about COVID-19Nothing12 (2.1)7 (1.5)5 (5.6)0.00412 (2.1)10 (1.8)2 (8.7)0.02112 (2.0)7 (1.6)5 (3.0)0.02811 (2.4)10 (2.4)1 (2.9)0.184
A little25 (4.4)21 (4.4)4 (4.4)25 (4.4)22 (4.0)3 (13.0)29 (4.8)15 (3.4)14 (8.5)20 (4.4)16 (3.8)4 (11.4)
Some130 (22.9)101 (21.1)29 (32.2)130 (22.9)123 (22.5)7 (30.4)140 (23.0)97 (21.9)43 (26.1)96 (21.1)87 (20.7)9 (25.7)
Much300 (52.7)256 (53.4)44 (48.9)300 (52.7)291 (53.3)9 (39.1)317 (52.1)239 (54.0)78 (47.3)236 (51.9)219 (52.1)17 (48.6)
Very much102 (17.9)94 (19.6)8 (8.9)102 (17.9)100 (18.3)2 (8.7)110 (18.1)85 (19.2)25 (15.2)92 (20.2)88 (21.0)4 (11.4)
The impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on your life or workAlmost nothing16 (2.8)14 (2.9)2 (2.2)0.32916 (2.8)15 (2.8)1 (4.4)0.8323 (3.8)18 (4.1)5 (3.0)0.38718 (4.0)17 (4.1)1 (2.9)0.09
Some154 (27.1)136 (28.4)18 (20.0)154 (27.1)148 (27.1)6 (26.1)164 (27.0)123 (27.8)41 (24.9)121 (26.6)114 (27.1)7 (20.0)
Much308 (54.1)256 (53.4)52 (57.8)308 (54.1)297 (54.4)11 (47.8)327 (53.8)240 (54.2)87 (52.7)242 (53.2)226 (53.8)16 (45.7)
Very much91 (16.0)73 (15.2)18 (20.0)91 (16.0)86 (15.8)5 (21.7)94 (15.5)62 (14.0)32 (19.4)74 (16.3)63 (15.0)11 (31.4)
Degree of worry about epidemiological infectionNot at all46 (8.1)44 (9.2)2 (2.2)046 (8.1)44 (8.1)2 (8.7)0.30850 (8.2)48 (8.3)2 (6.9)0.17534 (7.5)32 (7.6)2 (5.7)0.171
A little310 (54.5)273 (57.0)37 (41.1)310 (54.5)299 (54.8)11 (47.8)336 (55.3)324 (56.0)12 (41.4)250 (55.0)236 (56.2)14 (40.0)
Much118 (20.7)97 (20.3)21 (23.3)118 (20.7)115 (21.1)3 (13.0)121 (19.9)115 (19.9)6 (20.7)92 (20.2)83 (19.8)9 (25.7)
Very much95 (16.7)65 (13.6)30 (33.3)95 (16.7)88 (16.1)7 (30.4)101 (16.6)92 (15.9)9 (31.0)79 (17.4)69 (16.4)10 (28.6)
Confidence about overcoming this outbreakNothing5 (0.9)4 (0.8)1 (1.1)05 (0.9)5 (0.9)0 (0.0)0.1865 (0.8)3 (0.7)2 (1.2)03 (0.7)3 (0.7)0 (0.0)0.077
A little131 (23.0)91 (19.0)40 (44.4)131 (23.0)123 (22.5)8 (34.8)139 (22.9)83 (18.7)56 (33.9)99 (21.8)88 (21.0)11 (31.4)
Much164 (28.8)138 (28.8)26 (28.9)164 (28.8)155 (28.4)9 (39.1)175 (28.8)123 (27.8)52 (31.5)130 (28.6)116 (27.6)14 (40.0)
Very much269 (47.3)246 (51.4)23 (25.6)269 (47.3)263 (48.2)6 (26.1)289 (47.5)234 (52.8)55 (33.3)223 (49.0)213 (50.7)10 (28.6)
  1. aThe age range of ST-AI norm result was from 19 to 69, 39 questionnaires under 18 or above 70 years of age were excluded, 569 cases were enrolled in the analysis
  2. b Among 608 valid questionnaires, 153 didn’t complete SCL-90